Adequate research and innovation (R&I) is paramount for the seamless development, testing, adoption and integration of new rail concepts and technologies. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of R&I initiatives in Europe in this field. The assessment follows a structured methodology developed by the European Commission’s Transport Research and Information Monitoring and Information System (TRIMIS). The report critically addresses research by thematic area and technology, highlighting recent developments and future needs. It also provides insight from the academia and the private sector by means of focused scientific literature and patent analysis.