The  purpose  of  this  Research  Theme  Analysis  Report  is  to provide an overview of research performed (mostly) in the EU, providing a view across many projects that fall under the theme title. It provides a robust and thorough assessment of the reported results from the projects and offers perspectives from scientific and policy points of view. The Report was produced under the Transport Research & Innovation Portal (TRIP) continuation project for the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport (DG MOVE).