The objective of this study carried out by external contractors for the European Commission is to put forward policy-oriented recommendations and measures to accompany the transition to automation and digitalisation for the labour force in the transport sector, looking at the situation from a European perspective and considering all modes of transport. The methodology for the study includes literature review, stakeholder interviews and surveys of social partners, companies and workers. Moreover, a participatory workshop with transport stakeholders was organised. The study developed a typology of different measures that can be used to support the transition to automation and digitalisation in the transport sector. It consists of (i) training programmes; (ii) social funds; (iii) national legislative acts on labour relations, concerning the social implications of automation and/or digitalisation; (iv) sectoral collective agreements on the social implications of automation and/or digitalisation; (v) enhancing channels for dialogue between employers and workers; (vi) social dialogue at EU level; (vii) measures addressing challenges related to the platform economy; and (viii) creating awareness and developing mentoring programmes. Within these eight groups of measures, a total of 26 individual measures and ten good practice examples are described in detail in the study. On the basis of the lessons learnt from these identified measures and good practice examples, the authors of the study then make a number of policy-oriented recommendations to stakeholders, including the European Commission, on how to manage the transition to automation and digitalisation for the labour force in the transport sector. These 12 policy-oriented recommendations take account of the analysis of the level of awareness and preparedness of transport stakeholders, and of their need for guidance and accompanying measures.
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