The MIP was introduced in 2001 under EC Decision COM(2001) 2654 to secure smooth and timely financing for projects of common interest on a multi-annual basis. It is a tool to grant European Community financial aid to projects of 'common interest' in the area of Trans-European Networks for Transport (TEN-T)
The TEN-T projects are largely infrastructure-oriented, but many also contain a significant research element. Most of the projects have existed long before the MIP, but with EC funding on an annual basis or a multi-annual basis subject to periodic review. The MIP therefore groups these projects into a coherent programme and sub-programmes and provides a mechanism for multi-year funding, thus allowing more effective planning and project management and providing greater security of funding to long-term projects. MIP funding compliments funding at national level, and sometimes by additional EC funding on an annual basis.
The MIP programme ended in 2006 and has been superseded by the MAP programme in 2007 which carries on what the previous programme did.
The legal basis for the TEN-T is provided in the Treaty on the European Union. Under the terms of Chapter XV of the Treaty (Articles 154, 155 and 156), the European Union must aim to promote the development of trans-European networks as a key element for the creation of the Internal Market and the reinforcement of Economic and Social Cohesion. This development includes the interconnection and interoperability of national networks as well as access to such networks. In accordance with these broad objectives, the EC developed the TEN-T guidelines, a general reference framework for the implementation of the network and identification of projects of common interest. A number of financial instruments have been set up at Community level, each with their own legal basis, in order to conduct the development of the TEN-T and to support Member states financially in specific cases.
As the principal such financial instrument, MIP-MAP aims to provide a programme management and co-funding framework for the Trans-European transport network (TEN-T) projects over the 2001-2006 and 2007-2013 period.
The specific objectives of the MAP TEN-T are defined as:
· To speed-up the realisation of the TEN-T priority projects
· To improve the cost-effectiveness of the TEN-T financial means.
In line with the objectives set up in the 2001 European White Paper on transport policy, the MIP-funded projects aim to remove bottlenecks on the TEN-T and shift the balance between the different modes of transport. The 2001 White Paper provides directions for the objectives of TEN-T.
The projects within the MIP can be divided into 3 sub-programmes, only the third of which is significant in terms of transport research (as opposed to implementation/deployment):
- The 11 groups of priority projects of common interest endorsed by the 1994 Essen European Council (and known as the Essen projects). These are infrastructure oriented and cover the implementation of high speed rail networks, conventional rail and combined transport, road links and multimodal corridors.
- The Galileo programme (trans-European satellite navigation system). This programme is also funded through other programmes, e.g. DG TREN Growth Key Action 2 research projects and funding from the European Space Agency. The MIP contribution to Galileo is for the development phase and therefore not relevant to transport research.
- The four coherent groups of projects. These four sub-groups cover the following themes:
(a) Removal of bottlenecks on the railway network to improve freight and passenger traffic;
(b) Intra-Community cross-border projects and cross-border projects with third countries;
(c) Intelligent transport systems for road ('TEMPO' sub-programme);
(d) Intelligent transport systems for the air sector.
Multi-Annual Work Programme (MAWP) 2007-2013, which aims to further enhance the effectiveness and visibility of Community financing of the highest priorities of the TEN-T network. Calls are launched in specific fields each year, in line with the indicative timetable included in the MAP.
Total EC funding for MIP projects: EUR 2780 million over the period 2001-2006.
Breakdown is as follows:
- over EUR 1300 million (47%) to the Essen Priority infrastructure projects
- over EUR 550 million (20%) to the Galileo project
- the remaining 33% to the four coherent groups:
> EUR 640 million (23%) to railway bottlenecks and cross-border projects
> EUR 280 million (10%) to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) projects for the road and air sectors
In each year between 2001 and 2006 the Commission, using the Indicative Multiannual Programme as a reference framework, adopts decisions to grant financial aid to the individual projects of common interest and the coherent groups of projects of common interest.
The granting of aid by the Commission shall be based in the first year, on applications, to be submitted in accordance with Articles 8 and 9 of Regulation (EC) No 2236/95, and in each subsequent year, on annual progress reports.
Annual Commission decisions to grant aid under the Indicative Multiannual Programme covers projects of a suitable size and a homogeneous organisational set-up. In the case of the individual projects of common interest, the projects can take the form of project parts or of project stages. Projects must take the form of clearly defined projects of common interest meeting all the relevant requirements as regards a proper financial and technical management and monitoring. These projects of common interest must be as defined in the relevant EC decision (Decision C(2001) 2654 final of 19/09/2001, Annex II).
Funding can be in the form of direct grants or loans for interest payment. Grants may not be more than 50% of the total cost for studies and 10% of the cost for implementations.
The total amount available for grants on the basis of the MAP in the field of TEN-T ranges from
€ 6.4 billion to € 6.8 billion for the period 2007-2013. The indicative amount for the priority projects including Motorways of the Sea (