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Specific research, technological development and demonstration programme in the field of transport, 1994-1998



Specific research, technological development and demonstration programme in the field of transport, 1994-1998

Background & policy context: 

The specific programme for Transport RTD formed part of the first activity of the Fourth Framework Programme (FP4) within the sub-area 'Transport', and build on the experience and achievements of the first phase of the EURET programme under the Second Framework Programme.

The programme supported the development and implementation of the common transport policy, as articulated in the Commission Communication on the future of the common transport policy (COM (93) 494 final).

Research contributed to the development, integration and management of a more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly transport system which was to ensure the sustainable mobility of goods and persons.

Strategic Objectives: 

The main aims of the Transport RTD Programme were:

  • to develop a more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly transport system for passengers and goods;
  • to facilitate the interconnection and interoperability of the separate transport networks
  • to increase the efficiency of each individual mode and improve cooperation between them;
  • to promote the design and management of infrastructure with a view to reducing the damage to the environment and improving
  • the quality/price ratio; and
  • to provide industry, transport operators and users, and authorities with the appropriate decision-making instruments based on better knowledge and understanding of mobility, traffic flows, their interactions and interdependencies.
Programme organisation: 

The overall objective of the specific programme was to contribute to the optimization of transport systems in the Community by means of prenormative and prelegislative research. This was to be achieved by a coordinated dual approach, focusing on a strategy which would, firstly, provide the basis for a trans-European multimodal network through research into the general functioning of the transport system and, secondly, conduct specific research concerning the optimization of the individual networks.

Research activities in both areas would cover both general policy concerns (competitiveness, safety, energy and environment) and the different geographical levels (European, national, regional, urban).

The Transport RTD programme was organised and executed in four dedicated calls for proposals, commencing in December 1994 and ending in March 1998.

Leading Institutions:

European Commission; Directorate-General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN; formerly DG VII)

Type of funding:
Programme funding arrangements and funding conditions: 

Funding was generally on a 50% cost-shared basis (100% of additional costs for certain contractors), but went up to 100% for preparatory, accompanying and support measures, and specific measures such as action to promote standardisation, and measures to provide general tools to research centres, universities and undertakings.

Community funding was also available to cover up to 100% of the costs of the coordination in concerted actions. The bulk of strategic research projects was fully EC funded.

Particular RTD activities included:

  • shared-cost actions (financial participation between 35 % and 75 % of total eligible costs);
  • training fellowships (financial participation up to 100 % of additional eligible costs);
  • research training and thematic networks (financial participation up to 100 % of eligible costs);
  • concerted actions (financial participation up to 100 % of eligible costs); and
  • accompanying measures (financial participation up to 100 % of eligible costs).


Supporting the research needs of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) and encouraging their participation in research is a priority for the European Commission. Two mechanisms to encourage such participation in the programme have been Co-operative Research (CRAFT) Awards and Exploratory Awards, where 50 % and 75 %, respectively, have been financed by the EC. Simplified SME access has been organised through a single entry point at the Commission for project proposals, a dedicated SME info desk and an information pack.

The total planned funding of the Transport RTD programme amounted to some 240 million euro.

Participating countries: 
All EU member states; accession countries; other associated European countries; non-EU countries and international bodies
Number of projects:
Projects covered: 

The Transport RTD programme was divided into the following seven areas (percentage of overall funding and number of projects given in parenthesis):
- strategic research (20% - 48 projects);
- rail transport (16% - 20 projects);
- integrated transport chains (7% - 29 projects);
- air transport (16% - 46 projects);
- urban transport (11% - 34 projects);
- waterborne transport (19% - 58 projects); and
- road transport (11% - 37 projects).

Project Profiles:
  1. A Mobile VTMIS Using Innovative Technology
  2. A-SMGCS testing of operational procedures by simulation
  3. Acceptability of Fiscal and Financial Measures and Organisational Requirements for Demand Management
  4. Across Border Effects of Air Traffic Management
  5. Advanced benefits for logical VTS equipment
  6. Advanced Crash Dummy Research for Injury Assessment in Frontal Test Conditions
  7. Advanced Models for Analytical Design of European pavement Structures
  8. Advanced pilot tri-modal transport chains for the corridors West to South/South-East Europe for combined transport
  9. Advanced research on road work zone safety standards in Europe
  10. Advanced Runway Arrivals Management to Improve Airport Safety and Efficiency
  11. Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System
  12. Advanced technology to optimise maritime operational safety, integration and interface
  13. Agenda for Research on Tourism by Integration of Statistics / Strategies for Transport
  14. Air Traffic Departures and Arrivals
  15. Air Traffic Management System Safety Criticality Raises Issues in Balancing Actors Responsibilities
  16. Aircraft Environmental Impacts and Certification Criteria
  17. Alternative materials in road construction
  18. An Investigation into the Problems of Disabled Passengers in Access and Emergency Situations when Using Marine Transport and the Employment of Disabled Persons in the Maritime Industry
  19. Analysis and Definition of Operational Requirements for ATM
  20. Analysis and Development of a New Insight into the Substitution of Short Car Trips by Cycling and Walking
  21. Analysis and Development of Tools for Assessing Traffic Demand Management Strategies
  22. Analysis of Supply and Demand for Shipping Services
  23. Arctic Demonstration and Exploratory Voyage
  24. Assembling a European Network of Monitoring Centres for Transport Infrastructure
  25. Assessing Concepts, Systems and Tools for a Safer, more Efficient and Lower Operational Cost of the Maritime Transport of Dangerous Good
  26. Assessment and Certification Rules for Digital Architectures
  27. Assessment and Development of New Concepts for Management Structures of Ship Owners and Ship Operators
  28. Assessment of the Air Traffic Management System Configuration Subject to Validation
  29. Assessment of Transport Strategies
  30. Automated and robotics-based techniques. New solutions for road construction and maintenance
  31. Baltic basic open port communication
  32. Bridge Management in Europe
  33. Building Bridges Between Digital Transport Databases, GIS Applications and Transport Models to Develop ETIS Software Structure
  34. Campaigns for Awareness Using Media and Publicity to Assess Responses of Individuals in Europe
  35. Cars to Public Transport in the Urban Environment
  36. Casualty Analysis Methodology for Maritime Operations
  37. Co-operation for Evaluation of City Road Pricing Tools
  38. Co-operative European System for Advanced Information Redistribution
  39. Common Methodology for Multi-Modal Transport Environmental Impact Assessment
  40. Computer-Controlled Freight Platforms for a Time-tabled Rail Transport System
  41. Conceptional Analysis for Transportation on Rivers
  42. Concertation Action for European Information Systems
  43. Concerted Action for the Interconnection of Networks
  44. Concerted Action on Formal Safety and Environmental Assessment of Ship Operations
  45. Concerted Action on Logistics, Supply and Demand Chain Management
  46. Concerted Action on Non-Technical Measures and Their Impact on Air Quality and Emissions
  47. Concerted Action on Transport Pricing Research Integration
  48. Concerted Action on Validation of Air Traffic Management Systems
  49. Conditions for the Promotion of a New Generation of Intermodal Transport Services and Operators
  50. Consequences of Future Air Traffic Management Systems for Air Traffic Controller Selection and Training
  51. Construction with Unbound Road Aggregates in Europe
  52. Contaminated Runways
  53. Contribution for Assessment of Common Air Traffic Management Development in Europe
  54. Cost Evaluation and Financing Schemes for Urban Transport Systems
  55. Cost, Reliability, Maintenance and Availability
  56. Cost-efficient Origin/Destination Estimator
  57. Costs of Private Road Travel and their Effects on Demand, Including Short and Long Term Elasticities
  58. Current State of Standardisation and Future Standardisation Needs for Intermodal Loading Units
  59. Customisation and Tests on Site for the ERTMS/ETCS Level 1 Pilot Installation Vienna-Budapest
  60. Data Integration Requirements of European Cities for Transport
  61. Demonstration Facilities for Airport Movement Management
  62. Demonstration of Integrated Ship Control Systems
  63. Deployment of Inter-urban Advanced Transport Telematics Test Scenarios
  64. Derivation of the Relationship between Land-Use, Behaviour Patterns and Travel Demand for Political and Investment Decisions
  65. Designs to Avoid the Need to Travel in Europe
  66. Developing Urban Management and Safety
  67. Development of Functional Concepts from the EATMS Operational Requirements
  68. Development of Strategies Designed to Avoid the Need for Road Travel
  69. Development of Strategies Designed to Avoid the Need for Road Travel
  70. Developpment of the complete ERTMS concept
  71. Econometrics of Impacts
  72. Efficient inland navigation information system
  73. Elaboration of a Strategy for the Transition from EATCHIP phase III to the European Air Traffic Management System
  74. EMErging RTD Activities of reLevance to ATM Concept Definition
  75. Enhanced Safety coming from Appropriate Police Enforcement
  76. ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) proof of feasibility and preparation of tests
  77. Eurocab Madrid-Seville European tests
  78. Euromethodologies for Travel Assessment
  79. European Collaboration on Transition Training Research for Improved Safety
  80. European Economic Impact Study for the European Shipping Sector
  81. European Marine Motorways: The potential for transferring freight from road to high speed sea transport systems
  82. European Project On integrated VTS, Sea Environment and Interactive Data Online Network
  83. European Railways Optimisation Planning Environment - Transportation Railways Integrated Planning
  84. European Research on Aircraft Icing Certification
  85. European Research Project for Toll Effects and Pricing Strategies
  86. European Road Mobility Scenarios
  87. European Strategic Intermodal Links
  88. Evaluation Model for the Optimal Location of Intermodal Terminals in Europe
  89. Evaluation of the Danube Waterway as a key European Transport Resource
  90. Experimental Data and Models for Upgrading Lightning Protection Requirements
  91. Extending the Quality of Public Transport
  92. Fast Ships Safety
  93. Financial Assistance for Transport Integration in Metropolitan Areas
  94. Financing of Infrastructure Investments
  95. Forecasting and Assessment of New Technologies and Transport Systems and their Impacts on the Environment
  96. Freight Information in the Railway Environment
  97. Functional Architecture Reference for Air Traffic Management Systems and Data Exchange
  98. Functional Requirement Identification Development of Methodology
  99. GCAS Operational Requirements and Certification
  100. General Overall Validation for Air Traffic Management
  101. GNSS Value-added Services for Transport
  102. Group for Urban Interchanges Development & Evaluation
  103. Harbours - Silting and Environmental Sedimentology
  104. Harmonisation of European Maritime Education and Training Schemes
  105. Harmonisation of the European Rail Operating Rules
  106. High Performance Transport Network Modelling and Simulation
  107. High Speed Freight
  108. High Voltage Booster
  109. Highway Pollutants
  110. How to Enhance Walking and Cycling Instead of Shorter Car Trips and to Make these Modes Safer
  111. Human Element in Man/Machine Interface and Interaction to Improve Safety and Effectiveness Transport for the European Fleet
  112. Human Implications of New Technologies
  113. Human Safe Rail in Europe (Managing the Human Factor in Multicultural and Multilingual Rail Environments)
  114. Identification and Quantification of the Variables and Parameters that Aid in Evaluating Fire Risks On-Board Ships in Accordance with their Condition
  115. Impacts of Increased and Multiple Use of Inland Navigation and Identification of Tools to Reduce Impacts
  116. Improved Child Restraint Systems
  117. Improved Port/Ship Interface
  118. Improved Structure and Organisation for Urban Transport Operations of Passengers in Europe
  119. Improvement of Pre- and End-Haulage
  120. Improving the Competitiveness of Rail Freight Services
  121. Increase of Car Occupancy through Innovative Measures and Technical Instruments
  122. Information and Publicity Helping the Objective of Reducing Motorised Mobility
  123. Information in European Ports
  124. Information Systems
  125. Injury Criteria for Enhanced Passive Safety in Aircraft
  126. Inland Navigation Demonstrator for River Information Services
  127. Innovative distribution with intermodal freight operation in metropolitan areas
  128. Innovative rail intermodal services
  129. Innovative Ship Pilot Research
  130. Integrated Management of Multimodal Traffic in Port Terminals
  131. Integrated Ship Control System in Practical Demonstration
  132. Integrated Trans European Network Assessment Techniques
  133. Integrated Urban Transport Concepts and Market Orientated Urban Transport Systems/On-Demand Urban Transport Systems
  134. Integration of technologies for European short intermodal corridors
  135. Integration of Traffic Control and Other Measures
  136. Integration of Transport and Land-Use Planning
  137. Intelligent Freight Train
  138. Intermodal Concepts in European Passenger Transport
  139. Intermodal Connection of High-speed Railway Terminals in Metropolitan Areas
  140. Intermodal Decision (the decision making-process in intermodal transport)
  141. Intermodal Information Link for Improved Logistics
  142. Intermodal Quality
  143. Intermodal Transport Real-time Information Platform
  144. Interoperable Modular Pilot Plants Underlying the Logistic Systems in Europe
  145. Introduction of LEAN LOGISTICS into Urban Multimodal Transport Management
  146. Inventory of Existing and Past Practices and Experiences on Rural Transport
  147. Joint Aviation Requirements - Translation and Elaboration of Legislation
  148. Legal and Regulatory Measures for Sustainable Transport in Cities
  149. Liberalised and Interoperable Railways
  150. Long Distance Learning Technologies in Maritime Education and Training
  151. Management of Traffic Using Traffic Flow Control and Other Measures
  152. Managing Interoperability by Improvements in Tranport System Organisation in Europe
  153. Managing the Speed of Traffic on European Roads
  154. Maritime Black Box
  155. Maritime Standardised Simulator Training Exercises Register
  156. Market Orientated Transport in Focus
  157. MARPOL Rules and Ship-Generated Waste
  158. MET Improvements for Controller Aids
  159. Methodologies and Actions for Rail Noise and Vibration Control
  160. Methodology for Calculating Transport Emissions and Energy Consumption
  161. Methodology for Collecting Intermodal Freight Transport Data
  162. Methodology for establishing a database on transport supply, demand and modelling in Europe
  163. Methodology of safety in marine operations
  164. Methods for European Surveys of Travel Behaviour
  165. Mobile Radio for Railway Networks in Europe
  166. Mobility Management Applications in the Community
  167. Mobility Management for the Urban Environment
  168. Mobility, Intermodality and Interchanges
  169. Modelling and Analysis of the Impact of Changes in Air Traffic Management
  170. Models and Methodologies for the Assessment of Innovative Urban Transport Systems and Policy Options
  171. Models for Transport Environment and Energy - version 2 - Strategic Transport Policy Analysis
  172. Modular System for Reliability and Maintainability Management in European Rail Transport
  173. Monitoring, Assessment and Evaluation of Transport Policy Options in Europe
  174. Multimodal safety satellite system for transport
  175. New Optimisation Approaches for ATFM
  176. New Technologies in Maritime Transport interacting with the Human Element Assessment of Impacts
  177. North European CNS/ATM Applications Project
  178. Operational Project for Integrated Urban Management
  179. Optimisation of Airport Systems - Part A
  180. Optimisation of Airport Systems - Part B
  181. Optimisation of Policies for Transport Integration in Metropolitan Areas
  182. Optimisation of Traffic through the European Rail Traffic Management System
  183. Optimised System for an Innovative Rail Integrated Seaport Connection
  184. Palletised Rail Goods
  185. Pavement Maintenance
  186. Performance Analysis of Road Infrastructure
  187. Pipeline Intermodal System to Support Control, Expedition and Scheduling
  188. Platform for Air Traffic Management Tools Integration up to Pre-Operation
  189. Policy Assessment of Trans-European Networks and Common Transport Policy
  190. Policy assessment, scenario analysis and transport economic research in Europe
  191. Policy Scenarios for Sustainable Mobility
  192. Port Cost Analysis
  193. Precise Automatic Location System for the Management of Intermodal Transport Units and Vehicles, Inside Intermodal Terminals
  194. Preserving Roads through Traffic Knowledge
  195. Pricing Acceptability in the Transport Sector
  196. Pricing European Transport Systems
  197. Pricing Measures Acceptance
  198. Priorities for Vehicles of Essential User Groups in Urban Environments
  199. Private operation and financing of trans-European networks
  200. Procedures for Transport Evaluation and Monitoring of Radical Innovations in Learning Experiments
  201. Profitability of Rail Transport and Adaptability of Railways
  202. Promoting Integrated Transport in Peripheral Areas of the Union
  203. Promoting Interchange Rationale, Accessibility and Transfer Efficiency
  204. Promotion of Mobility and Safety of Vulnerable Road Users
  205. Promotion of Short Sea Shipping and Inland Waterway Transport by the Use of Modern Telematics
  206. Proposal for Air/Ground Exchange of Weather Data Information
  207. Prototyping and Validation Exercise with Evaluation of Concepts to Meet User Requirements
  208. Quality Approach in Tendering Urban Public Transport Operations
  209. Quality Indicators for Transport Systems
  210. Quality of Freight Village Structure and Operations
  211. Radio Data System/Traffic Message Channel for European Interoperability
  212. Reducing Congestion by Introducing New Concepts of Transport
  213. Relationship between Demand for Freight Transport and Industrial Effects
  214. Requirement/Benefit Definition Study Leading to 4-D Meteorological Databases Linked Across Europe
  215. Research for Enhancement of Working Conditions Onboard Ships
  216. Research on Freight Platforms and Freight Organisation
  217. Research on Inland Waterways
  218. River-based Information, Navigation and Communication
  219. Roadsite Testing Assessment
  220. Role of the Human in the Evolution of Air Traffic Management Systems
  221. Safety Assessments for Air Traffic Control
  222. Safety of Shipping in Coastal Waters
  223. Safety of Shipping in Coastal Waters : Demonstration of Risk Assessment Techniques for Communication and Information Exchange
  224. Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign
  225. Safety, Efficiency and Capacity of ATM Methodologies
  226. Scenarios for European Transport
  227. Scenarios for the Trans-European Network
  228. Segmentation for Transport in Markets Using Latent User Psychological Structures
  229. Shifting Cargo to Inland Navigation
  230. Short Sea Shipping Concerted Action
  231. Short sea shipping network
  232. Small/Medium Sized Ports with Harmonised, Effective Re-engineered Processes
  233. Socially Necessary Railways
  234. Socio-Economic and Spatial Impacts of Transport
  235. Standardisation of Accident and Injury Registration Systems
  236. Strategic Assessment Methodology for the Interaction of CTP Instruments
  237. Strategic Assessment of Corridor Developments, TEN Improvements and Extensions to the CEEC/CIS
  238. Strategic European Multi-Modal Modelling
  239. Strategic Organisation and Regulation in Transport
  240. Strategic Transport Research for European Member States
  241. Stress Reduction, Safety and Efficiency in Future ATM through Flight Progress Information
  242. Study of Optimisation Procedures for Decreasing the Impact of Noise Around Airports
  243. Study of the Impacts of the Transport RTD Programme
  244. Survey on Freight Transport Including Cost Comparison for Europe
  245. Sustainable, workable intermodal transport choices
  246. System for Effective Assessment of Driver State and Vehicle Control in Emergency Situations
  247. Technical, economical and operational assessment of an ATM concept achievable from the year 2005
  248. Technologies for European Surveys of Travel Behaviour
  249. The Application of Advanced Technologies to the Routing of Ships through Sea Ice
  250. The Automated Conveying and Transfer of Intermodal Cargo Shipments
  251. The impact of multicultural and multilingual crews on maritime communication
  252. The MARNET network, proposal for an inter-regional maritime information network
  253. The Optimisation of Modular Intermodal Freight Systems for Europe 2000+
  254. The port as a hub in the intermodal chain
  255. Total Airport Performance and Evaluation
  256. Towards a New Generation of Networks and Terminals for Multimodal Freight Transport
  257. Towards distributed heterarchic workflow methods for pro-active tracing of cargo
  258. Towards Origin-Destination Matrices for Europe
  259. Towards the Networking of European Freight Villages
  260. Traceability of the Evolution of Communication Navigation Surveillance (CNS)
  261. Traffic Optimisation by the Integration of Information and Control
  262. Trans Modal Integrated Urban Transport Pricing for Optimum Modal Split
  263. Transport Information Systems Policies
  264. Urban Transport: Options for Propulsion Systems and Instruments for Analysis
  265. Validation of the European Air Traffic Management System (EATMS)
  266. Value Added Services for Maritime Environment
  267. Vessel Traffic Management and Information Services Concerted Action
  268. Vessel Traffic Management and Information Services Concerted Action - Technical Secretariat
  269. Vessel Traffic Management and Information System NETwork
  270. Work Organisation in Ports
  271. Working Cultures in the Face of Intermodal Freight Transport Systems
Contact Name: 
Mr Morten Jensen
European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy and Transport(DG TREN; formerly DG VII)
Rue de Mot 24-28
Contact country:
+32 2 295 2345
Fax Number: 
+32 2 296 6757