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TRIMIS

2-wheeler behaviour and safety

PROJECT

2-BE-SAFE

2-wheeler behaviour and safety

Call for proposal: 
FP7-SST-2007-RTD-1
Link to CORDIS:
Background & policy context: 

Powered Two Wheeler (PTW) users are greatly over-involved in serious and fatal crashes. They have between 5 and 25 times the risk of having a fatal crash compared to car drivers, depending on the country. The number of PTWs on European roads has more than doubled over the last two decades. The recent MAIDS (Motorcycle Accident In-Depth Study) study of PTW crashes in Europe found that behavioural and ergonomic issues were major contributing factors to PTW crashes. The primary accident cause for PTW crashes was the failure of drivers to perceive two-wheelers, and human error was a major contributing factor to most crashes, for both PTW and car drivers.

The majority of PTW crashes involved a collision with a car. Many large-scale research programs have been undertaken to understand the behavioural and ergonomic factors that contribute to crashes involving 4-wheeled vehicles. These have been effective in informing countermeasure development, which has led to significant reductions in crashes. To our knowledge, no comparable human factors and behavioural research programs have been initiated in the PTW domain, in Europe or elsewhere. The high rate of motorcycle-related deaths and injuries calls for new and refined countermeasures, deriving from solid behavioural and ergonomics research.

Objectives: 

The main objective was to target behavioural and ergonomics research to develop countermeasures for enhancing Powered Two Wheeler (PTW), rider's safety, including research on crash causes and human errors, and the world's first naturalistic riding study involving instrumented PTWs.

The research targeted the behavioural and ergonomic factors contributing to motorcycle crashes. It focused on the following scientific issues:

  • to analyse the crash causes and human error;
  • to realise the world’s first naturalistic riding study involving instrumented PTWs;
  • to examine PTW riders’ perception and acceptance of risk;
  • to develop new research tools to support the research program, in-depth research on the factors that underlie driver failures to see PTWs and their riders;
  • to develop recommendations for practical countermeasures for enhancing PTW rider safety.
Methodology: 

The project outlined an innovative program of research (involving partners from Europe, Israel and Australia) that directly targets those behavioural and ergonomic factors cited in the MAIDS study as contributing to PTW crashes. This includes research on crash causes and human error.

The 2-BE-SAFE project involves 29 partners in 14 different countries in Europe, Israel and Australia, divided among research and academic institutes, end-users' associations and industrial partners.

Institution Type:
Institution Name: 
The European Commission
Type of funding:
Funding Source(s): 
DG RTD
Key Results: 

2 BE SAFE was the first study designed and implemented at a large-scale, integrated, program of research on the behavioural and ergonomic factors that underlie PTW crashes. The countermeasures proposed target the most critical safety problems identified in the MAIDS project. The implementation of the countermeasures will have the greatest impact possible in reducing road trauma for PTW riders. Specific recommendations have been made for improving PTW conspicuity, and actual technologies for improving PTW complicity have been developed and tested.

Innovation aspects

The most innovative technologies were six instrumented PTWs for naturalistic riding studies and two riding simulators which were used to study rider behaviour and performance in both normal and emergency riding conditions.

The strategy of this project consisted in conducting three innovative axis of research focussing on riders behaviour and on riders-drivers interactions. These topics of research in these three areas were derived from accidentology findings, and were supported by research and activities in designing the required technological tools.

WP 1 identified accident situations in which PTW riders are over-represented, and identifies and characterises the behavioural dysfunctions & including human errors that underlie these crash types.

WP 2, 3 and 5 involved studies designed to provide an in-depth understanding of PTW rider behaviour and performance, and rider-driver interactions, in normal and emergency situations.

WP 6 merged and distilled the results from WP 2, 3 and 5, analyses them and, using a systemic approach, produces guidelines and recommendations for countermeasure development.

WP 4 designed the relevant tools and methodologies (instrumented vehicles, driving/riding simulators, videos) which were used in WP 2, 3 and 5.

Strategy targets

An efficient and integrated mobility system: Acting on transport safety - saving thousands of lives

Readiness

The results of the project need further research on:

  • Mandatory Use of Headlights
  • Integrated Road Safety Education Programme
  • Guidelines for Improvement of Rider Conspicuity during Night-time Riding
  • Road Safety Inspection
  • Obligatory Helmet Use for PTW Riders and Passengers
  • Improvement of Data Collection
  • Identification of Accident Blackspots
  • Road Safety Audit
Lead Organisation: 

Europe Recherche Transport

Address: 
AVENUE FRANCOIS MITTERRAND 25
69675 BRON
France
EU Contribution: 
€179,288
Partner Organisations: 

Trl Limited

Address: 
Crowthorne Housenine Mile Ride
Wokingham
RG40 3GA
United Kingdom
EU Contribution: 
€227,215

Centre Europeen D'etudes De Securite Et D'analyse Des Risquesc.e.e.s.a.r.et D'analyse Des Risques

Address: 
Rue Des Suisses
92000 Nanterre
France
EU Contribution: 
€145,272

Kuratorium Fuer Verkehrssicherheit

Address: 
Schleiergasse
1100 Vienna
Austria
EU Contribution: 
€95,557

Factum Chaloupka & Risser Og

Address: 
Danhausergasse
1040 Wien
Austria
EU Contribution: 
€165,443

Ethniko Kentro Erevnas Kai Technologikis Anaptyxis

Address: 
Charilaou Thermi Road
57001 Thermi Thessaloniki
Greece
EU Contribution: 
€231,867

Piaggio & C S.p.a.

Address: 
Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 25
56025 Pontedera
Italy
EU Contribution: 
€21,901

Österreichisches Forschungs- Und Prüfzentrum Arsenal Ges.m.b.h

Address: 
Giefinggasse 2
1210 VIENNA
Austria
EU Contribution: 
€62,063

Fundacion Cidaut

Address: 
Parque Tecnologico De Boecillo, Parcela
47151 Valladolid
Spain
EU Contribution: 
€127,478

Universitat Wien

Address: 
Universitatsring 1
1010 Wien
Austria
EU Contribution: 
€27,620

National Technical University Of Athens

Address: 
Heroon Polytechniou 9 (polytechnic campus)
15780 ZOGRAFOS
Greece
EU Contribution: 
€295,259

Universita Degli Studi Di Firenze

Address: 
Piazza San Marco 4
50121 Florence
Italy
EU Contribution: 
€188,575

Faculdade De Motricidade Humana

Address: 
ESTRADA DA COSTA
1495-688 CRUZ QUEBRADA DAFUNDO
Portugal
EU Contribution: 
€55,302

Ben-Gurion University Of The Negev

Address: 
Office Of The President - Main Campus
Beer Sheva 84105
Israel
EU Contribution: 
€69,450

Universita Degli Studi Di Padova

Address: 
Via 8 Febbraio 1848 2
35122 Padova
Italy
EU Contribution: 
€118,732

Monash University

Address: 
Wellington Road
Victoria 3800
Australia
EU Contribution: 
€0

The University Of Nottingham

Address: 
University Park
Nottingham
NG7 2RD
United Kingdom
EU Contribution: 
€103,511

Centrum Dopravniho Vyzkumu V.v.i.

Address: 
Lisenska 33a
636 00 BRNO
Czech Republic
EU Contribution: 
€27,034

Epitropi Ereunon Panepistimiou Thessalias

Address: 
Argonafton & Filellinon
38221 VOLOS
Greece
EU Contribution: 
€63,113

Api Sa

Address: 
Route Du Mole Darse 2/3 4/6 Bat C46
92230 Gennevilliers
France
EU Contribution: 
€6,219

Federation Of European Motorcyclist' Associations

Address: 
Rue Des Champs
1040 Bruxelles
Belgium
EU Contribution: 
€45,506

Institut Francais Des Sciences Et Technologies Des Transports, De L'amenagement Et Des Reseaux

Address: 
BOULEVARD ISAAC NEWTON 14 CITE DESCARTES 14-20
77447 MARNE LA VALLEE CEDEX 2
France
EU Contribution: 
€567,335

Institute Of Communication And Computer Systems

Address: 
Patission
10682 Athens
Greece
EU Contribution: 
€114,498

Bundesanstalt Für Strassenwesen (Federal Highway Research Institute)

Address: 
Brüdenstrasse 53
51427 BERGISCH GLADBACH
Germany
EU Contribution: 
€208,931

Universita Degli Studi Di Modena E Reggio Emilia

Address: 
Via Universita
41100 Modena
Italy
EU Contribution: 
€131,221

Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus Vtt

Address: 
TEKNIIKANTIE 4 A
02044 VTT ESPOO
Finland
EU Contribution: 
€90,684

Technische Universitaet Dresden

Address: 
Helmholtzstrasse 10
1069 Dresden
Germany
EU Contribution: 
€430,925
Technologies: