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TRIMIS

2-wheeler behaviour and safety

PROJECTS
Funding
European
European Union
Duration
-
Status
Complete with results
Geo-spatial type
Other
Total project cost
€5 282 341
EU Contribution
€3 800 000
Project website
Project Acronym
2-BE-SAFE
STRIA Roadmaps
Transport mode
Road icon
Transport policies
Decarbonisation,
Societal/Economic issues,
Safety/Security
Transport sectors
Passenger transport

Overview

Call for proposal
FP7-SST-2007-RTD-1
Link to CORDIS
Background & Policy context

Powered Two Wheeler (PTW) users are greatly over-involved in serious and fatal crashes. They have between 5 and 25 times the risk of having a fatal crash compared to car drivers, depending on the country. The number of PTWs on European roads has more than doubled over the last two decades. The recent MAIDS (Motorcycle Accident In-Depth Study) study of PTW crashes in Europe found that behavioural and ergonomic issues were major contributing factors to PTW crashes. The primary accident cause for PTW crashes was the failure of drivers to perceive two-wheelers, and human error was a major contributing factor to most crashes, for both PTW and car drivers.

The majority of PTW crashes involved a collision with a car. Many large-scale research programs have been undertaken to understand the behavioural and ergonomic factors that contribute to crashes involving 4-wheeled vehicles. These have been effective in informing countermeasure development, which has led to significant reductions in crashes. To our knowledge, no comparable human factors and behavioural research programs have been initiated in the PTW domain, in Europe or elsewhere. The high rate of motorcycle-related deaths and injuries calls for new and refined countermeasures, deriving from solid behavioural and ergonomics research.

Objectives

The main objective was to target behavioural and ergonomics research to develop countermeasures for enhancing Powered Two Wheeler (PTW), rider's safety, including research on crash causes and human errors, and the world's first naturalistic riding study involving instrumented PTWs.

The research targeted the behavioural and ergonomic factors contributing to motorcycle crashes. It focused on the following scientific issues:

  • to analyse the crash causes and human error;
  • to realise the world’s first naturalistic riding study involving instrumented PTWs;
  • to examine PTW riders’ perception and acceptance of risk;
  • to develop new research tools to support the research program, in-depth research on the factors that underlie driver failures to see PTWs and their riders;
  • to develop recommendations for practical countermeasures for enhancing PTW rider safety.
Methodology

The project outlined an innovative program of research (involving partners from Europe, Israel and Australia) that directly targets those behavioural and ergonomic factors cited in the MAIDS study as contributing to PTW crashes. This includes research on crash causes and human error.

The 2-BE-SAFE project involves 29 partners in 14 different countries in Europe, Israel and Australia, divided among research and academic institutes, end-users' associations and industrial partners.

Funding

Parent Programmes
Institution Type
Public institution
Institution Name
The European Commission
Type of funding
Public (EU)
Funding Source
DG RTD

Results

2 BE SAFE was the first study designed and implemented at a large-scale, integrated, program of research on the behavioural and ergonomic factors that underlie PTW crashes. The countermeasures proposed target the most critical safety problems identified in the MAIDS project. The implementation of the countermeasures will have the greatest impact possible in reducing road trauma for PTW riders. Specific recommendations have been made for improving PTW conspicuity, and actual technologies for improving PTW complicity have been developed and tested.

Innovation aspects

The most innovative technologies were six instrumented PTWs for naturalistic riding studies and two riding simulators which were used to study rider behaviour and performance in both normal and emergency riding conditions.

The strategy of this project consisted in conducting three innovative axis of research focussing on riders behaviour and on riders-drivers interactions. These topics of research in these three areas were derived from accidentology findings, and were supported by research and activities in designing the required technological tools.

WP 1 identified accident situations in which PTW riders are over-represented, and identifies and characterises the behavioural dysfunctions & including human errors that underlie these crash types.

WP 2, 3 and 5 involved studies designed to provide an in-depth understanding of PTW rider behaviour and performance, and rider-driver interactions, in normal and emergency situations.

WP 6 merged and distilled the results from WP 2, 3 and 5, analyses them and, using a systemic approach, produces guidelines and recommendations for countermeasure development.

WP 4 designed the relevant tools and methodologies (instrumented vehicles, driving/riding simulators, videos) which were used in WP 2, 3 and 5.

Strategy targets

An efficient and integrated mobility system: Acting on transport safety - saving thousands of lives

Readiness

The results of the project need further research on:

  • Mandatory Use of Headlights
  • Integrated Road Safety Education Programme
  • Guidelines for Improvement of Rider Conspicuity during Night-time Riding
  • Road Safety Inspection
  • Obligatory Helmet Use for PTW Riders and Passengers
  • Improvement of Data Collection
  • Identification of Accident Blackspots
  • Road Safety Audit

Partners

Lead Organisation
Organisation
Europe Recherche Transport
Address
AVENUE FRANCOIS MITTERRAND 25, 69675 BRON, France
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€179 288
Partner Organisations
Organisation
Trl Limited
Address
Crowthorne House Nine Mile Ride 0, Wokingham, RG40 3GA, United Kingdom
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€227 215
Organisation
Centre Europeen D'etudes De Securite Et D'analyse Des Risquesc.e.e.s.a.r.et D'analyse Des Risques
Address
Rue Des Suisses, 92000 Nanterre, France
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€145 272
Organisation
Kuratorium Fuer Verkehrssicherheit
Address
Schleiergasse, 1100 Vienna, Austria
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€95 557
Organisation
Factum Chaloupka & Risser Og
Address
Danhausergasse, 1040 Wien, Austria
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€165 443
Organisation
Ethniko Kentro Erevnas Kai Technologikis Anaptyxis
Address
Charilaou Thermi Road, 57001 Thermi Thessaloniki, Greece
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€231 867
Organisation
Piaggio & C S.p.a.
Address
Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 25, 56025 Pontedera, Italy
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€21 901
Organisation
Österreichisches Forschungs- Und Prüfzentrum Arsenal Ges.m.b.h
Address
Giefinggasse 2, 1210 VIENNA, Austria
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€62 063
Organisation
Fundacion Cidaut
Address
PLAZA VICENTE ALEIXANDRE CAMPOS 2 PQ TECNOLOGICO DE BOECILLO 209, 47151 VALLADOLID, Spain
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€127 478
Organisation
Universitat Wien
Address
Universitatsring 1, 1010 Wien, Austria
EU Contribution
€27 620
Organisation
National Technical University Of Athens
Address
Heroon Polytechniou 9 (polytechnic campus), 15780 ZOGRAFOS, Greece
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€295 259
Organisation
Universita Degli Studi Di Firenze
Address
Piazza San Marco 4, 50121 Florence, Italy
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€188 575
Organisation
Faculdade De Motricidade Humana
Address
ESTRADA DA COSTA, 1495-688 CRUZ QUEBRADA DAFUNDO, Portugal
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€55 302
Organisation
Ben-Gurion University Of The Negev
Address
Office Of The President - Main Campus, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€69 450
Organisation
Universita Degli Studi Di Padova
Address
Via 8 Febbraio 1848 2, 35122 Padova, Italy
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€118 732
Organisation
Monash University
Address
Wellington Road, Victoria 3800, Australia
EU Contribution
€0
Organisation
The University Of Nottingham
Address
University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
EU Contribution
€103 511
Organisation
Centrum Dopravniho Vyzkumu V.v.i.
Address
Lisenska 33a, 636 00 BRNO, Czechia
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€27 034
Organisation
Epitropi Ereunon Panepistimiou Thessalias
Address
Argonafton & Filellinon, 38221 VOLOS, Greece
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€63 113
Organisation
Api Sa
Address
Route Du Mole Darse 2/3 4/6 Bat C46, 92230 Gennevilliers, France
EU Contribution
€6 219
Organisation
Federation Of European Motorcyclist' Associations
Address
Rue Des Champs, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€45 506
Organisation
Institut Francais Des Sciences Et Technologies Des Transports, De L'amenagement Et Des Reseaux
Address
BOULEVARD ISAAC NEWTON 14 CITE DESCARTES 14-20, 77447 MARNE LA VALLEE CEDEX 2, France
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€567 335
Organisation
Institute Of Communication And Computer Systems
Address
Patission, 10682 Athens, Greece
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€114 498
Organisation
Bundesanstalt Für Strassenwesen (Federal Highway Research Institute)
Address
Brüdenstrasse 53, 51427 BERGISCH GLADBACH, Germany
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€208 931
Organisation
Universita Degli Studi Di Modena E Reggio Emilia
Address
VIA UNIVERSITA 4, 41121 MODENA, Italy
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€131 221
Organisation
Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus Vtt
Address
TEKNIIKANTIE 21, 02150 ESPOO, Finland
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€90 684
Organisation
Technische Universitaet Dresden
Address
Helmholtzstrasse 10, 1069 Dresden, Germany
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€430 925

Technologies

Technology Theme
Unclassified
Technology
Non-technology

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