More than 25 years ago the last renewal of the Swiss Norm “SN 640 293 – Parkieren – Betrieb” was published. In the meantime a significant increase of management with controlled (automated) entrances and exits of parking areas was recognized. New technologies and control media were developed with deep impact to e.g. supply and despatching times. Especially new technologies as for example ticketing per cell phone or paying by credit card led to assumptions about diversification or change of capacity / efficiency of these facilities / installations. The research project aimed to quantify these changes, estimate the capacity / performance of the facilities and to renew the existing Swiss norm.
The main objective of the research is the investigation about the capacity of different components for parking facilities, ramp and mechanical car park facilities. For various operation systems the design of the car park elements, waiting time and buffer space will be determined.
The project shall allow to establish new standards instead of the former norm.
Classification of the parking facilities is undertaken. For each type of parking are defined the individual elements that have an impact on the overall performance or the performance of individual components. Performance of the individual elements is determined by empirical studies.
After the technical references being evaluated, empiric investigations are carried out in order to determine the capacity of all components for parking facilities referring to the vehicles and the pedestrians.
The capacity of despatch terminals is mainly influenced by 2 criteria: technique and operation. Differences from technical view are resulting from used control media as for example magnetic stripe card, punch card, barcode tickets. Compared to the percentage of technical despatch time, the despatch time resulting from operation through the user is mainly influencing the capacity of the entire system. Human behaviour, driving ability and behaviour during operation are the reason for the distribution of despatch times and therefore mainly reasonable for variation of capacity. Empirical data showed, that despatch times are significantly longer than calculated using the norm SN 640 293. New calculations, considering temporal variations in operation as well as the time needed for succeeding vehicles led to minor capacities. As for example, the empirical analyses for an entrance despatch terminal with magnetic stripe card showed a capacity of about 325 v/h. The norm gives a value of 400 v/h, without distinguishing the kind of control media. Newer results of the German research association FGSV led to even deeper values: the EAR05 gives 290 v/h for the example, about 25% under the given capacity by the Swiss norm. Systems with barcode tickets or punch cards showed capacities between 300 and 320 v/h at entrances. Terminals with barcode tickets showed capacities from 400 v/h at the exit. The usage of credit cards leads to significant extension depending on online connection to servers of the credit institute or not. With an online connection and online control, capacity decreases to 180 v/h. The usage of credit cards always is an additional offer, so that the resulting capacity is depending from the percentage of credit card usage.
The Swiss norm gives a capacity value from 500 to 800 v/h for roads and ramps with a radius more than 20 meters. Empirical data showed that capacity between 1’100 and 1’300 v/h are possible if an unhindered traffic flow at junctions is ensured. However, the internal net of a parking site mostly is so dense, that junctions follow each other with little distance and significantly influence the traffic between. A capacity decrease of highly loaded t-nodes to 620 v/h is possible. The given capacity for roads and ramps between 500 and 800 v/h could be confirmed. Looking at closer radii for ramps no deeper values could be found, so that new a capacity between 400 and 600 v/h is given. The Swiss norm gave a value between 300 and 500 v/h.
The capacities of roadways are not