Based on literature research, example collections as well as video and conflict observations the following ranges of topics are needed to be examined:
- Basic conditions and application criteria of crossings in point in dependence of determining parameters and with the goal of considering the requirements of the different road users equivalently.
- Mobility, comfort and safety needs of children, elderly and handicapped people are particularly to be considered.
- Project engineering principles for the design and arrangement of crossings in point with consideration of different operating and design concepts of transportation infrastructure.
- The decision criteria for the choice of the suitable elements of crossings (without crosswalk and "bicycle ford") are specified, the geometry of the elements as well as the requirements of the operation are defined.
- Adjustment with the traffic law and other legal bases.
With this research study the following goals are to be achieved:
- Refining the criteria for the choice between crossings in point with precedence and without precedence.
- Arranging an overview of existing elements for crossings for bicycle traffic, for pedestrian traffic and combined elements for both means of transport.
- Analysis and selection of suitable elements for crossings for different groups of users and roads.
- Definition of the use and geometry of suitable elements for crossings with consideration of the road safety, operation and layout (without crosswalk and "bicycle ford").
The research study delivers thereby the basis for the standardization of crossings in point of the pedestrian and bicycle traffic.
Following steps will be provided during the project activities:
- Literature review of domestic and foreign literature
- Analysis of existing case studies in Switzerland and in neighbouring countries (Germany, France)
- Observation of the behaviour of pedestrians, bicycle riders and motorists to existing crossings (conflict observation, video recordings)
- Survey of pedestrians, bike riders and car drivers for perception and understanding of the existing crossing elements
- Expert discussions on the topics of application and experience with existing crossings
- Analysis of accidents at crossings punctual
The VSS norm SN 640 240 "Crossings for Pedestrian and Bicycle Traffic; Basics“ contains the general principles and requirements for crossings as well as the planning of crossings for non-motorized traffic. The other norms of the norm group for crossings describe the basics for project planning of the different types of crossing.
These norms of project planning already exist for pedestrian crossings (SN 640 241) and for underpasses and footbridges for non-motorized traffic (SN 640 246 and SN 640 247). Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to compile the basics for project planning norms of pavement crossings and of punctual crossings without precedence.
The central part of this research consists of the evaluation of national and international literature. This includes the analysis of the legal basis. The evaluation of accident occurrences and the observation of behaviour at pavement crossings in particular generated important input. Thanks to expert discussions and workshops the existing experiences with crossings for non-motorized traffic in Switzerland could be compiled. Subsequently, the results of parallel studies that are partially related to the topic have been integrated into this study.
Part A functions as a general overview and contains the legal basis, as well as definitions of important terms and a description of the requirements for crossings of non-motorized traffic. Regarding pedestrian crossings at road junctions the following crossing elements are compared: pedestrian crossing, pavement crossing, raised pedestrian crossing and curb ramp. A comparison of the conditions for the application of these elements on the one hand and the effect of those on the other hand makes it easier to choose the appropriate crossing element.
Part B contains information regarding the arrangement and configuration of pavement crossings. The arrangement has to fulfil the requirements for crossings that have the right of way according to SN 640 240. The security of pedestrians and other users of the pavement is at the centrum when it comes to pavement crossings. Only if security can be guaranteed at least equally well as in alternative crossing solutions (pedestrian crossing, curb ramp etc.) pavement crossings can be applied. The security of pavement crossings is bindingly influenced by the arrangement and configuration of the pavement crossing, the longitudinal gratitude of the main carriageway (high speed of non-motorized vehicles such as skateboards or kickboards