Over the last few years, electric mobility has once again been the subject of lively discussions due to new, more powerful rechargeable batteries and the high volatility on the oil markets. Political objectives such as a reduction on the dependency on oil, more efficient energy transformation, significant CO2 reductions and a reduction of local emissions from transport are important drivers of electromobility. Electromobility is therefore a prominent topic in environmental, economic and social terms. Many challenges still have to be solved with regard to technology and infrastructure. Also, suitable business models have to be developed, and needs and preferences of users have to be taken into account for electromobility services to be successfully diffused and used. Policy support can make a decisive contribution for a solution of these challenges. Electromobility has already been promoted by the German government in numerous research programmes and pilot projects. These support programmes and projects tackle different questions and consider different applications and aspects of electromobility. So far, there has been no comprehensive collection of currently available results. Because of the complexity of the topic, however, such an overall picture is essential for a wide-ranging discussion and evaluation of electromobility with regard to ecological, economical and social aspects and for any decision about political objectives and measures in this context.
One objective of this study is to comprehensively process and summarize the current state of research and development and to supplement it when necessary. Based on this, an overall analysis and discussion of those aspects should take place which are of key importance for political decisions on strategies and measures, specifically the ecological, economic and social aspects of integrating electromobility into our systems of transport. Conclusions and recommendations will be derived for further development and promotion of electromobility in Germany.
The project is divided into three parts. In the first part, the basis for a comprehensive evaluation of electromobility and thus the basis for political decisions is provided. The second part of the project constitutes of a comprehensive assessment of the presented technologies, applications and development scenarios based on ecological, economic and social aspects. In the third part, an overall assessment of electric vehicles and their potential in the context of a synthesis and conclusions will be derived. Different funding strategies and measures are presented and critically evaluated. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for further development and promotion of electric vehicles in Germany are derived.
For a successful, comprehensive market introduction of electric vehicles, a number of technical challenges must be solved. Because the total cost as well as the range of electric vehicles is significantly determined by the battery, the battery will have a key role in the technological development. The range of conventional cars appear only be reachable by post-lithium-ion batteries, whose market launch is expected after 2020. Other technical challenges and requirements for the success of the market are the development of electric motors and power electronics and the development of systems with higher loading speed.