The project aims at increasing the public confidence in the safety regarding electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the fully electric vehicles (FEV).
Public expectations to move towards the electrification of road transport are driven by a multitude of factors and concerns including: climate change, primary energy dependence and public health as well as cost and scarcity of raw materials. Road transport remains the main source of many local noxious emissions including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). Within urban areas, the noxious emissions due to road transport are particularly high. There is a growing body of evidence linking vehicle pollutants to severe health effects such as respiratory and cardio-pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. In general according to the World Health Organization the emissions from car exhausts are responsible for more deaths than road accidents.
On the other hand, there is widespread public concern regarding the possible adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Thus, there is a need to avoid the spread of panic or unjustified fears that would delay the enormous and crucial economic and environmental benefits that the FEV can provide when deployed on a large scale.
The general objectives of the project were the implementation of
-prudent Avoidance Practices based on design guidelines for field mitigation
-a flexible monitoring platform to measure field emissions or leakages and magnetic field levels in critical locations of the electric vehicle.
WP1: Application requirements and preliminary specifications
-Definition of the electrical architecture to be considered for measurements and simulations
-Definition of recommendations for on board magnetic sensor network measurement systems
-Simulation of EFs and MFs from the principal modules
WP2: In vehicle EMF measurements and experimentation of EMF effects
-Update the known state-of-the-art on EMF measurements in HEVs and FEVs
-Preliminary quantification of EMF values in critical points with the definition of thresholds in relation to the location and in relation to the driving condition constant speed vs acceleration/braking
- Update the state-of-the-art on the current knowledge on EMF effects on health
- Experiments in vitro cells behaviour upon EMF solicitations emulating EMF exposures in the vehicles
- Update the know how about optimization of topology of the electrical architecture to minimize the EMF impact by EM field distribution inside a full EV by measurement
- Introduction of a flexible EMF measurement platform
WP3 Sensor feasibility study
-Identification and feasibility study of the selected sensing technologies
-Simulate and characterise sensor platforms to measure EF and MF addressing
- Wide application ranges
- Low cost
- Low power consumption
WP4: Designs for mitigation: Application of "prudent avoidance practices"
Define general criteria for Electrical Vehicles design to mitigate EMF effects
-Design and develop intrinsically safe cables
-Define active-passive interactions amongst sensors and other electrical devices
-EM Field distribution due to Cables
WP5: In vehicle Components integration
-Integrate the newly developed cables and sensors
-Perform measurements with developed sensors in relation to various driving conditions (eg. acceleration, braking) and provide feedback to sensor adjustments
WP6: Dissemination and exploitation
-Definition and execution of exploitation strategies in order to ensure the applicability and safe technological solutions by applying prudence design policies on component and systems for the electric vehicle domain.
-Definition and execution of dissemination activities in order to make the research activities and the progress of technology development visible to interested communities outside the project and to establish a social and technical networking platform.
-The link amongst t
In the first 18 months of the project an electric car (called P-MOB, developed by IPM/Polimodel in the frame of the EU project P-MOB) with a conventional EV architecture (one battery back ? two motors) was selected as vehicle's demonstrator. The car was made available for a measurement campaign performed in the frame of WP2 and, based on the results obtained, for optimization on cabling according to the 'prudent avoidance practices' developed in WP4.
A very deep and interesting report (D1.2) for the general public has been written, in order to describe the magnitudes and frequencies of magnetic fields that may be dangerous to human health, either by the field acting on a third object causing danger, or by direct, dangerous inter-action between the human and the field. The authors have used the work by the International Committee for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO), and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) of the USA as material. The directives issued by the European Commission have also been used.
On the basis of the results obtained and the experience gained during the measurements of MF done on WP2 a very useful report (D1.3) has been provided. The aims of this document are to:
-Build a model which explains the permanent and inductive magnetization of an electric vehicle.
-Describe the technical possibilities for an on-board sensor network and comments on its feasibility.
-Give some specifications for magnetic sensors to be embedded in the car.
Finally, an innovative and intensive activity on modelling and simulation has been performed and is reported in D1.4. This activity included:
-a review of relevant field exposure recommendations, particularly those relating to the electro-stimulation effects that are associated with electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 1 Hz to 10 MHz;
-the identification of sources and methods of evaluation for possible low-frequency magnetic field exposure threats in road vehicles with electric powertrain;
-the use of modelling and simulation to investigate the impact of specific parameters such as cable configuration and vehicle construction for in-vehicle magnetic field distributions;
-piloting an approach for using numerical models to assess field exposure against 1999/519/EU and similar requirements from traction current waveforms.
Innovating for the future: technology and behavior
- Promoting more sustainable development