Hydrogen Contaminant Risk Assessment
In HyCoRA project, a strategy for cost reduction for hydrogen fuel quality assurance QA was developed and executed.
For developing this strategy, hydrogen quality risk assessment is used to define the needs for hydrogen impurity gas analysis, system level PEMFC contaminant research as well as needs for purification needs in hydrogen production, especially produced by steam methane reforming (SMR).
The use of qualitative and quantitative risk assessment enabled identification of critical needs for gas analysis development and guides the research work on those issues, which require most attention. The development of quantitative risk model enabled implementation of data from other parallel activities in USA, Japan and Korea.
The measurement campaigns in hydrogen refuelling stations, as well as in SMR production units, provided quantitative data, which can be used for identification of canary species, when analysed with help of quantitative risk assessment.
Essential part of the HyCoRA project is hydrogen contaminant research in PEMFC system level. The research is performed in down-scaled automotive fuel cell systems, which can replicate all the features of full-scale automotive fuel cell systems, including the change of gases in the anode and cathode during the start-stop cycling. The contaminants and levels studied were, excluding obvious carbon monoxide, determined using risk assessment with help of automotive advisory board.
The main objective of HyCoRA project was to provide information to lower reduce cost of hydrogen fuel QA. However, it also provided recommendations for revision of existing ISO 14687-2:2012 standard for hydrogen fuel in automotive applications.
The main objective of HyCoRA project has been to provide information to reduce the cost of hydrogen fuel’s quality assurance (QA). It has also provided recommendations for revision of existing ISO 14687-2:2012 standard for hydrogen fuel in automotive applications.
For developing the strategy for cost reduction for hydrogen fuel QA, a hydrogen quality risk assessment has been used to define the needs for hydrogen impurity gas analysis, system level PEMFC contaminant research and purification in hydrogen production, especially by steam methane reforming (SMR) with pressure swing adsorption (PSA).
Hydrogen fuel QA affects directly to the market penetration of the fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). Unsuccessful QA would lead to vehicle incidents and hinder the public acceptance of the technology. On the other hand, unnecessarily tight fuel QA induces costs that are directly translated into the fuel cost for the customer. Without reasonable pricing, even good technology will not be adopted by the users.
During HyCoRA project, it has been shown that the limits of formaldehyde (HCHO) and formic acid (HCOOH) in the ISO 14687 standard could be relaxed. The FC measurement test system utilized for H2 fuel impurity measurements is state of the art. The automotive-alike approach to H2 recirculation, implemented into a test stations by VTT, has been omitted also by other groups (e.g. LANL). During HyCoRA project, three sampling campaigns from the hydrogen refuelling station’s (HRS) nozzle have been completed, fuel composition and impurity concentrations analysed. The technical data gathered from the three H2 fuel-sampling campaigns is unique and public and has induced much interest. The HRS sampling strategy has been widely accepted and successful sampling campaigns culminated in Annex I to 19880-1. In addition, a probabilistic risk assessment model for determining QA needs has been built and released as open Matlab code for further exploitation.
HyCoRA project results have been disseminated in various international conferences and workshops, and presented in TC 197 meetings for WG 24, 27 and JWG 7.