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Hydrogen Transport in European Cities

European Union
Complete with results
Geo-spatial type
Total project cost
€29 256 316
EU Contribution
€11 948 532
Project Acronym
STRIA Roadmaps
Low-emission alternative energy for transport (ALT)
Transport mode
Road icon
Transport policies
Environmental/Emissions aspects,
Deployment planning/Financing/Market roll-out
Transport sectors
Passenger transport,
Freight transport,


Link to CORDIS

This proposal focuses on creating two new European hydrogen passenger vehicle deployment centres in London and Copenhagen – cities that are widely recognised as synonymous with the goal of developing and then adopting ultra-low carbon urban transport solutions.

The HyTEC project will also create genuine links between the new and existing hydrogen passenger vehicle demonstration projects across Europe, with a view to informing ongoing strategic planning for hydrogen rollout and also ensuring a ‘common voice’ towards the expansion of the hydrogen vehicle fleet in Europe towards commercialisation. To do so, a fleet of passenger cars will be deployed in Oslo, one of the early demonstration centres, continuing the rollout of the hydrogen vehicles at this site.

The goal of the project is to implement stakeholder inclusive vehicle demonstration programmes that specifically address the challenge of transitioning hydrogen vehicles from running exemplars to fully certified vehicles utilised by end-users and moving along the pathway to providing competitive future products.

A European consortium of 17 members from 5 member states has been assembled to deliver the project, which will:

  • Demonstrate 25 new hydrogen vehicles in the hands of real customers, in two vehicles classes: taxis (5), passenger cars (19). In addition fuel cell hybrid hydrogen scooters will be demonstrated as a proof of concept in London and at Ride and Drive type events. The passenger cars will be supplied by leading global OEMs.

These will be supported by new hydrogen refuelling facilities, which together with existing deployments in each city will lead to two new city based networks for hydrogen fuelling. These networks work on different concepts, one based on on-site production (Copenhagen) and the second on hydrogen delivery (London), allowing different pathways to be tested and compared.

  • Analyse the results of the project, with an expert pan-European research team. The analysis will consider the full well to wheels life cycle impact of the vehicles and associated fuelling networks, demonstrate the technical performance of the vehicles and uncover the non-technical barriers to wider implementation.
  • Plan for future commercialisation of the vehicles, as well as providing an approach for the rollout of vehicles and infrastructure, which builds on the demonstration projects.
  • Disseminate the results of the project widely to the public to improve hydrogen awareness. This will be supported by targeted dissemination to, other regions, key industrial stakeholders and policy makers.


Parent Programmes
Institution Type
Public institution
Institution Name
European Commission
Type of funding
Public (EU)


Final Report Summary - HYTEC (Hydrogen Transport in European Cities)

HyTEC Final Publishable Summary Report Executive Summary The Hydrogen Transport in European Cities (HyTEC) project created new European hydrogen passenger vehicle deployment centres in London and Copenhagen. The HyTEC project also linked new and existing fuel cell vehicle...

Executive Summary:

HyTEC Final Publishable Summary Report

Executive Summary

The Hydrogen Transport in European Cities (HyTEC) project created new European hydrogen passenger vehicle deployment centres in London and Copenhagen.

The HyTEC project also linked new and existing fuel cell vehicle demonstration projects across Europe, notably with a small fleet of passenger cars deployed in Oslo, continuing the rollout of the hydrogen vehicles at this site.

Operational data from the vehicles and fuelling stations was collected and analysed, providing a set of results available for public dissemination. The results of an LCA analysis of the vehicles and infrastructure in the project provides insight into the overall environmental performance of the technology deployed. This has been complemented with qualitative data in the form of interviews with vehicle end users and other relevant stakeholders.

A further outcome of HyTEC was the development of strategic plans for the roll-out of hydrogen fuelling infrastructure and vehicles across Denmark and in London, to be employed as the hydrogen transport sector expands and enters an early commercialisation phase across Europe. This has been shared with partner cities and other interested cities and regions and will help inform their development plans for hydrogen transport.

The overall achievement of HyTEC was to implement a demonstration programme that specifically addressed the challenge of transitioning hydrogen vehicles from exemplars to fully certified vehicles used by a range of drivers in real-world conditions. Another important aspect of the project was facilitating the construction of a network of hydrogen refuelling stations (HRS) in the two main deployment centres of Copenhagen and London. The creation of a public hydrogen fuelling network will form a lasting legacy in both London and Copenhagen that will continue to support the roll out of hydrogen vehicles and future demonstration activities associated with these.

The dissemination programme, including workshops with key stakeholders from other cities will improve their knowledge of hydrogen transport and assist deployment plans for hydrogen vehicles and fuelling centres in other regions of Europe.

Project Context and Objectives:

Summary Description of Project Context and Objectives

The HyTEC project partners worked together to:

• Demonstrate commitment of partner cities to integrating solutions that support cleaner air quality and a better and healthier lifestyle for their citizens.

• Demonstrate new fleets of hydrogen vehicles in different vehicle classes

• Deploy new hydrogen refuelling facilities to support vehicle operation, which led to city-based networks for H2 fuelling in London and Copenhagen. The networks deployed different hydrogen supply concepts: partial on-site hydrogen production (Copenhagen) and hydrogen delivery (London), allowing different delivery pathways to be compared.

• Produce a set of analytical results to reveal the performance of the technologies in real-world operation and highlight areas for further research. Analysis by an expert research team considered the full well to wheel life cycle impact of the vehicles and fuelling networks.

• Plan for hydrogen vehicle commercialisation, by providing an approach for the rollout of vehicles and infrastructure, building on the HyTEC activities.

London (September 2011 – August 2015):

• Deployment of five fuel cell hybrid taxis into London in July 2012.

• Completion of a programme of operation of the taxis, initially to support Mayoral activity during the London Olympic/Paralympic Games and then to achieve performance targets.

• Deployment of a hydrogen fuelling station (HRS) in July 2012. The HRS, situated at Heathrow Airport, is the UK’s first truly publically accessible HRS, available 24 hrs/ day.

• The HRS initially provided 350 bar fuelling, a pressure suitable for refuelling the taxis. In June 2014, the fuelling station was upgraded to provide 350 & 700 bar fuelling, meeting the needs of the passenger fuel cell cars that were deployed later in the project.

• Delivery of an innovative High Pressure Tube Trailer (HPTT), a first for the UK. The trailer was deployed in early 2014 and supports the delivery of high pressure 500 bar hydrogen gas to the Heathrow HRS.

• The London activities were affected by developments at London Taxi International (LTI). LTI entered Administration in late October 2012 and had to leave the project (in early 2013). Consequently, the fleet of taxis was not expanded beyond the original five vehicles.

• Nevertheless a fleet of five fuel cell taxis was successfully operated during the project, bringing profile to hydrogen transport technology into London as part of the Olympic Games and subsequently, a key set of operating results .

• Due to the departure of LTI from the HyTEC project, budget was available for deployment of additional hydrogen vehicles. As a result, the Greater London Authority (GLA) entered a procurement exercise, using project budget to support deployment of fuel cell passenger cars into the city. This resulted in an order for two Hyundai ix35 fuel cell cars in 2014.

• These vehicles formed part of the first fleet of fuel cell passenger cars deployed into the UK on a commercial lease basis. The two Hyundai ix35 FCEVs were delivered to London in 2014 and are used by staff of London Bus Services Ltd (LBSL) for field activities.

• In conjunction with the GLA and Hydrogen London, an exercise was undertaken on hydrogen infrastructure expansion in London. This study was designed to support placement of future hydrogen fuelling stations in the city and has already supported decisions being made in the HyFIVE project.

• A programme of dissemination events, organised directly as part of HyTEC or by individual partner organisations, has ensured HyTEC project messages have been communicated throughout the UK. Audiences included other city representatives, government officials and policy makers, and industry and academia stakeholders and (through the taxi operation), VIPs and the public. The Heathrow HRS has been the setting for meetings with stakeholders, with taxis and passenger car fuelling demonstrated.


Project achievements (September 2011 – August 2015):

In January 2012, the city of Copenhagen started a tendering process for the procurement of FCEVs, leading to a contract with Hyundai for fifteen FCEVs being agreed in September 2012.

The deployment of nine of these vehicles was supported by HyTEC, with six coming via another project. Data from all vehicles has been collected and analysed as part of the HyTEC project.

The first of three new HRS for Copenhagen area formally opened in June 2013. Two additional fuelling stations followed, beginning operation in 2014 and 2015 respectively. The 700 bar hydrogen fuelling network is used by FCEV operators, with data collected and analysed as part of the HyTEC project.

The first edition of a hydrogen infrastructure expansion analysis for Denmark was concluded in November 2012. A second and third iteration of the analysis followed, each of which has contributed towards an updated national hydrogen transport plan for Denmark.

The fleet of hydrogen vehicles and fuelling network has been the focus of multiple high profile events in and around Copenhagen. Various delegations from Denmark and overseas have visited the city to learn from the experience in deploying and operating the hydrogen vehicles. Numerous meetings were organised to reach out to potential early adopters for hydrogen technology among Danish municipalities, regions and private companies, supporting further fuel cell vehicle deployment, through projects such as HyFIVE.


Using project budget originally earmarked for the taxi deployment, a third deployment centre was created as part of the HyTEC project in Oslo.

The city of Oslo has a dense hydrogen fuelling network, with four hydrogen refuelling stations in operation. To increase the utilisation of the stations, a fleet of fuel cell cars was delivered to Oslo in September 2014. Hyundai Motor Norway AS (HMN) was responsible for the distribution and deployment for a total of eight Hyundai ix35 FCEVs.

A hydrogen infrastructure provider was the first customer for a fuel cell vehicle in Oslo under HyTEC. As a hydrogen provider, the company understood the importance of demonstrating the usability and practicability of a hydrogen car. The car is being used for commuting and business travel as well as during hydrogen events.

The second fuel cell vehicle deployment under HyTEC was to the municipality of Oslo.

Six vehicles were deployed as company cars of HMN. These vehicles have been circulated within the dealer network for demonstration purposes and customers test-drives. HMN selected and educated two dealerships within the Oslo Greater Area, enabling them to become an official fuel cell dealership.

During the Norway Zero Konferansen, HMN displayed fuel cell vehicles, which were available for test-drives. Participants included press, politicians and the public.

Cross-Cutting Activities

• As part of the vehicle and infrastructure deployment outlined above, a programme of work related to safety and certification activities was completed.

• A protocol was created for the collection and analysis of data from the vehicles and fuelling infrastructure operating as part of the project. The results of the analysis are contained within the project’s final technical report (D6.6).

• Environmental assessment reports were completed on the vehicles and fuelling stations operating in the project.

• A project website was created ( with regular updates provided. The website will continue to be live until August 31st 2016, giving access to all final public reports. HyER will ensure further visibility of relevant HyTEC results on their website and publications beyond the duration of the project.

• A series of five project newsletters was created, providing regular updates on the project to over 7,000 contacts across European Regions, European decision makers, industry stakeholders and press delegates.

• A series of expert symposia took place as part of the project, with events held in Hamburg in April 2013 and in Copenhagen in June 2014. These events brought together international experts from the public and private sectors to discuss the role of cities and regions in supporting the rollout of hydrogen transport and provided a forum for sharing lessons learnt and international best practice. A resulting ‘Best Practice Guide’ was created, with the aim of sharing with cities and regions across Europe that have an interest in becoming early adopter areas for hydrogen transport. Senior representatives of the cities/regions involved in the project were represented at the final project conference (held in London on 6th October 2015). At this event, a signed statement of intent was presented that signals a joint intention from the partner cities to continue collaboration on hydrogen transport initiatives.

Project Results:

Description of the main S&T Results /Foregrounds

The key results from the project are presented in the following pages for each Work Package (WP):

WP1: Coordination

Project management was carried out as per the Description of Work with the coordinator (Air Products, AP) acting as the interface with the FCH JU and being supported by national project managers responsible for on-the-ground delivery in each country.

The defined tasks for WP1 were:

• Task 1.1 Project Management

• Task 1.2 Communications management

• Task 1.3 Technical coordination and reporting

• Task 1.4 Financial coordination and reporting

• Task 1.5 Overall project reporting

WP1 Achievements

With the support of all partners, Air Products carried out all coordination activities including the distribution of funds, agreements preparation, general assembly meeting organisation, validation of deliverables, and being the contact point with the FCH JU. A number of contract amendments were also carried out during the project, most notably following the departure of London Taxi International (LTI) and the redistribution of budget to accommodate fuel cell passenger car deployment and operation into London and Oslo, plus the entry of Hyundai Motor Europe (HME) as a project partner.

Element Energy, Hyundai Motor Europe and Hydrogen Link Denmark managed the delivery of the project in London, Norway and Copenhagen respectively. Day to day management activities included regular update calls (see communications management) and a hands-on management approach regarding the delivery and demonstration activities.

WP2: Vehicle Deployment

This work package covered the deployment of three different vehicle classes (fuel cell taxis, scooters and passenger cars) into three different deployment centres (Copenhagen, London and Oslo). Five fuel cell taxis were successfully deployed and operated as part of the HyTEC project. This activity enabled high profile dissemination of fuel cell technology and useful operating data. The deployment plans were affected by the taxi supplier (LTI) going into Administration (and subsequently were bought by Geely) and a change in strategy from Suzuki regarding their plans for fuel cell scooter deployment. Overall, 30 vehicles were deployed against an original target of 20; this was possible due to project amendments that allowed for passenger cars being deployed into London and Oslo, where the vehicles used existing fuelling infrastructure

The defined tasks for WP2 were:

• Task 2.1 London taxi deployment

• Task 2.2 London Scooter Deployment

• Task 2.3 Copenhagen passenger car deployment

• Task 2.4 London OEM passenger car deployment

WP2 Achievements:

London Taxi Deployment:

• Five taxis were delivered to London in July 2012, ready for operation during the Olympic and Paralympic Games. The taxis provided local transport services to/from the various Games venues for VIP guests of the London Mayor.

• Originally, the plans for operation of the taxis post the Olympics Games relied on the support of LTI, the taxi manufacturer. Following LTI’s exit from the project – the operating plans for the taxis were revised, with IE taking on responsibility for the ongoing operation of the vehicles. The results are outlined in WP4.

London Scooter Deployment

• The original intent of the HyTEC project was to include demonstration of fuel cell hybrid scooters, supplied by Suzuki, based on a modified Burgman scooter and with the London Metropolitan police as an end user. These were delivered into the project with the support of Intelligent Energy, for London based operation and wider dissemination activities.

• A changing strategy on the part of Suzuki meant that the role of the scooters within the HyTEC project had to be adapted and these changes meant that the scooters were not operated by the end user in normal running service.

• Despite the change in strategy for demonstration and operating the existing Burgman scooters, units were available and used for demonstration purposes and were run at multiple public and stakeholder related events in the UK and in Brussels.

Copenhagen Passenger Car Deployment

• In January 2012, the City of Copenhagen started activities on the tender and procurement process to deliver a fleet of hydrogen fuel cell cars into the city. The procurement was completed in September 2012 and fifteen ix35 FCEVs from Hyundai were delivered to the city in June 2013.

London OEM Passenger Car Deployment

• The vehicle procurement framework for London was established in February 2014 and an order for two FCEVs was placed with Hyundai UK. The two vehicles were leased by Transport for London (TfL) and formed part of a fleet of six fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) from Hyundai (model ix35 Fuel Cell) that were delivered to London during summer 2014.


ix35 FCEVs at a photo-shoot in east London, October 2014

Oslo Passenger Car Deployment

• Eight fuel cell cars were earmarked for operation in Oslo and were delivered by Hyundai. The first car was deployed to a hydrogen infrastructure provider and the second car to a municipality. The other six cars were deployed as company cars and are in use by employees of Hyundai Motor Norway AS, substituting internal combustion engine cars.

WP3: Infrastructure Deployment

This work package covered the deployment of hydrogen fuelling stations into Copenhagen and London.

The defined tasks for WP3 were:

• Task 3.1 Site selection

• Task 3.2.1 London station design

• Task 3.2.2 Copenhagen station design

• Task 3.3 Safety and planning

• Task 3.4 Station construction

WP3 Achievements:

London Site Selection and Infrastructure Deployment:

• The site for the new London hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) is at Heathrow Airport, close to Hatton Cross Underground Station. It was formally a piece of unused land, which was leased from Heathrow Airport to Air Products for the purpose of installation of the hydrogen fuelling facility. The project management to complete the required civils, secure planning consent and finalise the lease was completed in 2012 with support from Element Energy.

• The London HRS made use of a newly deployed High Pressure Tube Trailer (HPTT). The HPTT is a state of the art hydrogen trailer, which delivers hydrogen at 500 bar pressure. The deployment of the HPTT was required in order to operate the 350 / 700 bar HRS. The delivery of the HPTT was reliant on approval of its high pressure vessels for use on UK roads. This approval took longer than originally expected and was finally achieved in late 2013.

• In order to accommodate fuelling at the Heathrow HRS in the intervening period, a 350 bar station was installed as an interim measure until the 700 bar station was deployed. This station was AP‘s S125 design and allowed for 350 bar fuelling at Heathrow between July 2012 and spring 2015.

• In spring 2014, the upgraded 350/700 bar HRS was deployed, along with the HPTT.

Copenhagen Site Selection and Infrastructure Deployment

A site analysis was conducted in the greater Copenhagen area, with the purpose of identifying and selecting three HRS sites. Together the HRS’s were to provide sufficient fuelling coverage for the city.

The first site was selected in early 2012 covering the area south of the city centre (Sector 1). Sites for the remaining two HRS’s were also identified during 2012 – ensuring coverage of sector 2 as shown on map.

The second HRS in Copenhagen (Copenhagen Ring/Gladsaxe) was successfully put into operation in December 2014. The HRS is located at a conventional fuelling station right next to a major highway ring around Copenhagen to the North/West. The HRS was open for fuelling in December 2014, whereas the official opening event was conducted in April 2015. The pictures below show the completed HRS.


The third HRS commenced operation on 10th of July 2015 with 24 hour public access for fueling.

The HRS is located at an old battery swapping station (Better Place) and right next to a BEV fast charger facility. The location is next to the major highway intersection at the outer skirts of Copenhagen, connecting to Germany and West Denmark.

Below are shown pictures of the installed HRS at site.


All three HRS’s will continue operation beyond the project period. Operational data will continue to be provided to the FCH JU as part of the HyFIVE project.

WP4: Vehicle and Infrastructure Operation

This work package covered the operation of vehicles and hydrogen fuelling stations in the project

The defined tasks for WP4 were:

• Task 4.1 Vehicle operation

• Task 4.2 Vehicle maintenance

• Task 4.3 Vehicle data acquisition

• Task 4.4 Infrastructure operation

• Task 4.5 Infrastructure maintenance

• Task 4.6 Infrastructure data acquisition

WP4 Achievements:

Vehicle Operation – Operation of LTI taxis

The five fuel cell taxis began operation in July 2012, and carried out VIP passenger services during the Olympics and Paralympics period on behalf of the London Mayor. The taxis travelled 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometres) on mostly short distance journeys in and around central London and to/from the key venues during the Olympics & Paralympics.

Subsequently the focus of taxi running was the achievement of mileage targets running on representative taxi routes in central and outer London. This was constrained by LTI going into Administration (with some taxis held by the Adminstrator) and then by limitations on the number of taxis that could be operated at the London taxi depot. On conclusion of the programme the total mileage achieved across the fleet was 62,156 miles or 100,030 km, with a single high mileage vehicle achieving 27,247 miles (43,867 km).

Vehicle Operation – Operation of Suzuki Scooters

Due to the revised deployment plans for the sccoters, short duration display running was carried out. The Burgman scooter was displayed / demonstrated at multiple public and stakeholder related events in the UK (London, Millbrook, Edinburgh) and in Brussels.

Vehicle Operation – Operation of OEM Passenger Vehicles (Copenhagen)

The fuel cell vehicles completed 245,546 km during the 2 years of operation. Several vehicles have passed or are close to passing 20,000 km of operation and all have completed their second service. (The FCEVs must undergo a service for every 10,000 km of operation).


Data associated with the operation of the passenger cars in Copenhagen

The end users of the vehicles comprise employees of the municipality working in a variety of different administrations. They are in general very pleased with the driving abilities and technical performances of the fifteen fuel cell vehicles operating in Copenhagen City. The united response is that the vehicles are very user-friendly, comfortable to drive and technically well-appointed and well-functioning. The challenges have been few and mainly related to user experiences and less to problems of technical character.

Vehicle Operation – Operation of OEM Passenger Vehicles (London)

Six FC passenger cars were delivered to London in July and August 2014 (two FCEVs funded by the HyTEC project and four FCEVs funded by the LHNE project) and have been allocated to the following end-users:

• 1 Air Products (LHNE)

• 1 Johnson Matthey (LHNE)

• 1 Hyundai (LHNE)

• 1 Anglo American (LHNE)

• 2 TfL (HyTEC)

The two vehicles delivered to TfL started operation in February 2015 and are being used by the bus operations support team. One car is based in west London and is mainly using the Heathrow HRS while the other is based in east London and using the Temple Mills HRS (bus fuelling station).

Vehicle Operation – Operation of OEM Passenger Vehicles (Oslo)

From the eight cars deployed in Oslo, one has completed the initial service after 10,000 km in February 2015. By the end of the HyTEC project, the car of the hydrogen infrastructure supplier accumulated more than 15,000 km without any operating issues.

Infrastructure Operation – London

The Heathrow HRS has been in operation in two incarnations since the start of the HyTEC project. The station is unmanned and accessible to end users 24 hours / day following an initial induction section with AP. Users access the HRS via an individual PIN.

The first HRS incarnation was a 350 bar only system that operated from August 2012 until May 2014.

In May - June 2014, an upgrade to the Heathrow HRS took place in conjunction with the arrival of a High Pressure Tube Trailer which could transport hydrogen to the fuelling station at 500 bar. The upgraded HRS delivered a number of enhancements that improved the on-stream factor for the station, including remote diagnostic capability and remote access to the control system. In addition, the upgraded station provided built-in redundancy, as two dispensers are now available (providing hydrogen at 350 and 700 bar).

For the period of the HyTEC project, the London HRS achieved 95% availability (against a target of 98%).

The target of 98% is expected to be achieved during the HRS’s continued operation. The Heathrow HRS continues to operate as part of the London network of the HyFIVE project and the lessons learned will be carried over into that project.

Infrastructure Operation – Copenhagen

The HRS’s in Copenhagen has been in continuous operation since the starting date of each HRS. The first HRS commenced operation in June 2013, at the same time of the arrival of the FCEV fleet for the city of Copenhagen. A total of 4,312 kg and 1,303 fuelling was been conducted with an average availability of 98.4% by July 2015. By the end of the HyTEC project, a total of 36.5 months of HRS operation time was achieved.

WP5: Safety and Certification activities

This work package covered certification associated with the vehicle deployed.

The defined tasks for WP5 were:

• Task 5.1 LTI taxi certification

• Task 5.1.2 PCO certification

• Task 5.2 Suzuki scooter certification

• Task 5.3 OEM Passenger vehicle certification

• Task 5.4 Vehicle safe fill certification

• Task 5.5 Reporting

WP5 Achievements

LTI Taxi Certification

• For the five fuel cell taxis deployed, European Community Whole Vehicle Type Approval (ECWVTA) was preferred but was not achievable due to budget and time constraints.

• As an alternative, the five fuel cell taxis were certified to UK Individual Vehicle Approval requirements (IVA) in July 2012.

• Once the IVA was in place for the taxis, the PCO accepted the taxi for use in London to carry non-fare paying passengers. This acceptance for use as a standard London Hackney Carriage was granted on 25th June 2012.

Suzuki Scooter Certification

• The Suzuki fuel cell scooters achieved ECWVTA certification in 2011 and were hence already road-legal on European streets.

OEM Passenger Vehicle Certification – Denmark

• Necessary approval of the OEM passenger vehicles for Copenhagen was provided by the OEM as part of the vehicle provision. The OEM provided all necessary documentation to enables homologation in accordance with European legislation and international standards. This included among others the “EIHP2 Draft for Vehicle Approval” and EC REGULATION No. 79/2009 - on type-approval of hydrogen-powered motor vehicles, taking into consideration the time overlap between the two regulation documents. In addition, the base vehicle (e.g. modified gasoline model) required a full European type approval or other sufficient approval.

• In addition to the European type approval – local Danish approval was required. This was achieved with support of CoC and the vehicle supplier. As a result of this work, the Danish registration of FCEVs can now be completed very quickly. It now only takes 1½ week due to tight corporation between Danish authorities and the Danish Car Importers Association.

OEM Passenger Vehicle Certification – London

• The fuel cell passenger cars deployed into London have European Whole Vehicle Type Approval and were sourced from a global OEM. Local representatives of the supplier organisation ensured that further certification requirements specific to the UK were met. For example, all hydrogen-fuelled vehicles currently require a Vehicle Special Order (issued by the UK’s Vehicle Certification Agency) to legally operate on the UK’s public roads. Certificates for all of the OEM FCEVs deployed in London were obtained by the local Hyundai representative in advance of vehicle handover.


• Lessons learned from the experience in achieving certification on the fuel cell taxis have been captured in a public report. This report will prove useful for hydrogen vehicle manufacturers looking to register their vehicles in the UK, particularly small manufacturers whose vehicles do not have EWVTA.

WP6: Data Analysis and Reporting

This work package set up the frameworks for data collection from the vehicles and fuelling stations, which was carried out with associated analysis and reporting. The work package also included LCA work carried out on the vehicles and fuelling infrastructure and work on societal impacts of the vehicle and infrastructure operation. These outputs are summarised in public reports where full details can be found; for this report, a high-level summary follows below.

The defined tasks for WP6 were:

• Task 6.1 Establishment of data reporting and assessment protocols

• Task 6.2 Technical analysis and reporting

• Task 6.3 Environmental impact assessment and reporting

• Task 6.4 Economic analysis and reporting

• Task 6.5 Societal impact assessment and reporting

WP6 Achievements

A data protocol document was created and used as a basis for collection and reporting of data in this workpackage.

Data was accepted from the partners for vehicle and infrastructure operation to the end of July 2015. This was achieved as shown in the table below:

Location Data received to end of

London Taxis: July 2015

Infrastructure: July 2015

Copenhagen Vehicles: July 2015

Infrastructure: July 2015

A comprehensive public report entitled ‘HyTEC report on two years of vehicle and refuelling station operation in Copenhagen and London’ was prepared in February 2015 and has been circulated to all partners. The report formed an additional (non-scheduled) project deliverable aimed at boosting project dissemination activities in HyTEC’s final year.

A public deliverable report (D6.11) was completed, summarising the project’s outputs over its three years of operation and drawing comparison with other, comparable fuel cell vehicle trials.

The detailed results of the different delivering stations and several configurations of the HRS were analysed by MATGAS using the Life Cycle Analysis tool. The LCA of the vehicles in London and Copenhagen and the integration of the fuel supply LCA into the use phase were carried out by Fraunhofer. The hypothesis, framework and assumptions, under the cradle-to-gate perspective, were agreed in a working meeting of the WP6 partners, held in MATGAS on March 15th and 16th, 2015.

The final models appear in the public final deliverable report (D 6.8).

A final end of trial report on the attitudes of the drivers in Copenhagen and London towards the vehicles was carried out and presented in D6.11.

In general, the users and Copenhagen were very pleased with the vehicles. Regular vehicle users found the driving experience very positive, and foudn the fuel cell vehicles generally safe and reliable. Their views of the refuelling infrastructure were generally less positive, with users expressing a wish to see more stations and improved reliability. In mitigation the survey was carried out shortly after a relatively long planned station outage for upgrade in May 2015. The users‘ views have been fed back to the station manufacturers and operators.

In London the passenger car users were generally very enthusiastic about the FCEVs, but less positive about the refuelling infrastructure. Again, the users‘ feedback was given to the station and vehicle manufaturers to help in future developments.

At the end of the trial all the London taxi drivers thought that the fuel cell taxi would be able to meet their work-related needs. They said they would be willing to pay a small (10-25%) premium for a hydrogen vehicle, but also noted the need to provide incentives for uptake if the running costs are not comparable to those of a diesel taxi.

WP7: Dissemination

This work package covers all aspects of project dissemination.

The defined tasks for WP7 were:

• Task 7.1.1 UK-wide dissemination

• Task 7.1.1 Danish and Scandinavian dissemination

• Task 7.2 EU-wide Dissemination

WP7 Achievements

London Dissemination

• The HyTEC project was officially launched to the public at an event hosted by the Mayor of London and the Greater London Authority at London’s City Hall on 20th July 2012. Subsequent to this, HyTEC was referenced at 34 separate events hosted by or attended by HyTEC partners in the UK.

Danish and Scandinavian dissemination

• The HyTEC project had its Danish launch at an event held on Monday the 3rd of June 2013 when the fifteen FCEVs were handed over from Hyundai to the City of Copenhagen and the first of the three new hydrogen refuelling stations was opened.

• In addition, the HyTEC project was referenced at 34 additional events hosted by or attended by HyTEC partners in Denmark.

EU-wide Dissemination

• In addition to the national dissemination events outlined above, the HyTEC project has generated media coverage in national and international press, technical / semi technical articles, and TV and radio coverage.

• HyER ensured presence of the HyTEC vehicles and/or presence and presentations at several EU events.

Final Project Event

• A final dissemination event of the project took place in London on 6th October 2015. The event was attended by around 50 participants. These were project partners and invited guests including:

o Representatives from partner cities and other cities / regions interested in hydrogen transport.

o Stakeholders from industry, academia and government

o Members of trade, technical and national (UK) media publications

• At the event, HyTEC partners reflected on the achievements of the four year project.

• A focus for the event was a signing of a collaboration statement of intent. This was signed by the HyTEC partner cities of London, Copenhagen, and Hamburg, along with Akershus County Council (Norway). This document states that the signatories recognise the benefits of hydrogen transport, appreciate the role of cities / regions in helping the sector, and signals intent to continue to support the commercialisation efforts.

WP8: Future Planning

This work package has a future gazing focus. The approach and results from HyTEC showed how partner cities could use the project results as a basis for further hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure deployment and operation. This approach was also shared with other interested cities and regions, to support their own H2 transport plans.

The defined tasks for WP8 were:

• Task 8.1 Strategy Development

• Task 8.2 Infrastructure Expansion

WP8 Achievements

The creation of a forum for information exchange on the steps towards commercialisation of FCEVs in London, Copenhagen, and beyond. Experts in the field of hydrogen transport came together for an open exchange of information and ideas, to determine the best practice for cities to facilitate the commercialisation of hydrogen transport. Following this, the first draft of a best practice guide was produced, focusing on actions that local / regional authorities can take to support deployment of hydrogen transport.

A second expert symposium was held in Copenhagen in June 2014. It was hosted by the City of Copenhagen and attended by around thirty individuals from local authorities and industry. Topics of discussion included defining a comprehensive palette of measures, policy priorities for the early adoption phase, and policy making in the context of technology uncertainty.

Following the second symposium, the best practice guide was updated and summarised for senior policy makers across Europe.

As a follow up to the expert symposia, the city representatives agreed to sign a statement of intent to continue the collaboration developed through the HyTEC project. The statement recognises the benefit of cities / regions working together to accelerate the commercialisation of hydrogen transport and signals the intent of the cities to continue to support the sector and seek new opportunities to collaborate in future. It was signed by senior representatives of London (UK), Copenhagen (Denmark), Hamburg (Germany), and Akershus (Norway) and presented at the final HyTEC project conference, held in October 2015.

Identifying next steps towards commercialisation

This task explored in detail the next steps required for London and Copenhagen to be leading cities in the rollout of hydrogen transport. Separate strategy reports for each city were produced, outlining recommended next steps for vehicle and infrastructure deployment.


The strategy for London was finalised during early summer 2014. The output has been shared with senior decision makers at the Greater London Authority (GLA), who are considering options for delivering the strategy.


The first (English language) edition of a report on expansion of Danish hydrogen infrastructure was completed in November 2012. Further work was conducted subsequently and the report was updated, with a second edition delivered in June 2013 and third edition in December 2014. The changes between the first and third editions of the report included general updates to account for new knowledge and data (e.g. latest status of incentives, HRS networks, and evolving rollout approaches), and the addition of results of a calculation run for Denmark using LBST’s H2Invest model.

A third and final revision of the expansion study was completed by December 2014

Potential Impact:

Potential Impact

The planned impact of the HyTEC project was to expand on the number of existing hydrogen demonstration sites in Europe, a key objective of the Annual Implementation Plan.

This was achieved through the deployment of fuel cell vehicle fleets, together with associated fuelling infrastructure in two new countries, the UK and Denmark. The project has also build on the existing demonstration activity in fleet deployments in Norway.

The project has exceeded the practical requirements of the call, by deploying 30 new hydrogen vehicles in two deployment centres. The continued running of the vehicles beyond the end of the HyTEC project, coupled with the continued operation of the fuelling stations as part of the HyFIVE network, ensures that each city will show lasting impact from the deployment and operation carried out as part of HyTEC

The HyTEC sites were deliberately selected for their lasting impact as leading adopters for fuel cell vehicle technology in Europe. This choice has been borne out when you consider that both Copenhagen and London are continuing to operate as fuel cell transport centres within the HyFIVE project.

The experience of operating the two different classes or fuel cell vehicles (taxis and passenger cars) has helped establish the principals of how these vehicles need to be certified and registered for operation in the deployment centres and how they perform in extended operation in the different urban environments. This has been through the collection and analysis of data and the questionnaires completed by end users.

Similarly, the experience of deploying and operating the hydrogen fuelling station has provided valuable experience in managing the siting and planning process, stakeholder engagement, user training and operational efficiency. These experiences have been documented in a number of public reports which will help inform others projects in these partner cities and other operating centres. The HyFIVE project in particular is benefitting from these experiences.

The project has built on the public and political awareness of hydrogen by developing new strategic recommendations on the next steps for hydrogen in the deployment centres and, through the expert forums, share these insights with key stakeholders in other, new deployment centres for hydrogen transport.

List of Websites:

Project website (

A project website was created and will continue to be live for 12 months after the end of the project (until end August 2016)

Contact Details

Project Coordinator – Diana Raine / Dr. Emma Guthrie, Air Products plc

E-mail: /


Lead Organisation
Air Products Plc
Hersham Place - Molesey Road, Walton-On-Thames, KT12 4RZ, United Kingdom
EU Contribution
€1 975 556
Partner Organisations
Foreningen Hydrogen Link Danmark
Tambjergvej 12, 6950 Ringkobing, Denmark
EU Contribution
€150 419
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.v.
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€230 816
Hydrogen, Fuel Cells And Electro-Mobility In European Regions
Avenue Palmerston, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€84 800
Greater London Authority
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€229 390
Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik Gmbh
Daimlerstr. 15, 85521 Ottobrunn, Germany
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€110 058
Lti Limited
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€1 080 317
Hysolutions Gmbh
Steinstrasse 25, 20095 Hamburg, Germany
EU Contribution
€16 575
Kobenhavns Kommune
Ottiliavej, 2500 Valby, Denmark
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€761 663
Matgas 2000 Aie
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€68 614
Cenex - Centre Of Excellence For Low Carbon And Fuel Cell Technologies
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€276 629
Intelligent Energy Limited
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€3 996 829
Element Energy Limited
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€311 962
Copenhagen Hydrogen Network As
EU Contribution
€1 918 915
Lhr Airports Limited
Nelson Road The Compass Centre, Hounslow, TW6 2GW, United Kingdom
EU Contribution
€89 966
London Bus Services Limited
42-50 Victoria Street Windsor House, London, SW1H 0TL, United Kingdom
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€27 173
Hyundai Motor Europe Gmbh
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€618 850


Technology Theme
Fuel cells and hydrogen fuel
Development of new Fuel Cells and Hydrogen (FCH) technologies
Development phase

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