Sustainable mobility at the local level, in cities, towns or districts, requires a balance between accessibility, livable conditions and environmental quality. Despite technological progress and strict standards for new vehicles, a balanced local traffic plan is still needed to improve the quality of life and environment in our cities and communities. Local administrations are therefore in need of an integrated instrument to check the impacts of their plans with criteria for district accessibility, livable conditions (including road safety, pedestrian cross-over possibilities, ...) and environmental quality (noise and air). We plan to create a methodology that takes the spatial characteristics, traffic situations and social functions of districts and streets into account.
The project deals with both economic, environmental and social aspects of sustainable mobility. An integrated methodology for the evaluation of local traffic plans of cities and municipalities will be developed and demonstrated. Starting with the (modelled) traffic flow information, we assess several indicators for the quality of life (in relation to traffic; accessibility, pedestrian cross-over, accident risks) and environmental quality (air and noise). A special technique will be devised to integrate these different indicators so that different plans or options can be compared, tested against sustainability criteria and the optimal scenario chosen, taking into account the objectives of the local administration.
- Develop an integrated methodology for the evaluation of impacts of local traffic plans on accessibility, traffic livability, noise nuisance and air quality.
- Develop and use new methods and models to evaluate all these impact categories at the district or street level and in more detail than before.
- New recommendations for local policies related to mobility, environment, road safety and urban planning.
Expected results and/or products
The major results of this project are:
- Emission factors and vehicle fleet data for local and slow traffic in the present and future situation (2010).
- A dispersion model that predicts hourly values for air quality parameters at the city and street levels with even more detail in the streets.
- A model that converts data on emission factors and traffic flows into noise levels at the street and city levels.
- An impact module that links population distributions to variations in noise and air quality levels.
- A detailed (in space and time) analysis of exposure for different population groups.
- A methodology to quantify accident rates, crossover possibilities and spatial quality of major roads.
- Development of an instrument to estimate impacts on livability at the local level.
- A database of livability indicators linked to livability levels that depend on the type and function of a district.
- Recommendations to policy makers that take our new perspective of traffic impacts on cities' livability into account.
The integrated approach favours policy measures that score well for all aspects studied.
The research is structured according to the DPSIR model, (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Response). For the selected case study (town or city) we will calculate traffic flows (for different traffic plans) and analyse the vehicle fleet composition and speed profiles. This is the basis for the calculation of the environmental indicators:
- Accessibility: we estimate the accessibility of different functions and districts, with all transport modes (car, bus, bike, walking, ...).
- Air quality: we calculate emissions, dispersion, concentrations in the streets, exposure of people to pollutants and impacts on public health.
- Noise: we calculate emissions and propagation of noise, sound levels in the city and its streets, and quantify and interpret exposure and noise nuisance.
- Quality of life is evaluated with indicators describing the accident risks for different road users and the cross over facilities for pedestrians.
In the last step these indicators are integrated. An expert system works out bottlenecks and sticking points in terms of one indicator (e.g. noise nuisance) or for the whole aggregate of indicators.
Model for impact measurement on livability in urban areas of noise and air quality.
Recommendations to policy makers concerning traffic impact on cities livability.
The study developed a methodology to improve the quality of life in urban environments.
The study offered a methodology to be taken into account in local/urban traffic plans and critical indicators such as accessibility, air quality, noise nuisance and quality of life.
A model was devised that predicted hourly values for air quality parameters at the city levels. It provides emission factors and vehicle fleet data and how this influences the noise levels, it provides livability indicators.
The study offered recommendations to policy makers for analysing different criteria (noise levels, air quality, accessibility, safety) of traffic impact.
The project dealt with economic, environmental and social aspects of sustainable mobility and an integrated methodology for evaluating traffic plans in municipalities and cities is proposed.
The study develops a methodology to improve the quality of life in urban environments
The study offers a methodology to take into account in local/urban traffic plans critical indicators such as accessibility, air quality, noise nuisance and quality of life
A model is offered that predicts hourly values for air quality parameters at the city levels, it provides emission factors and vehicle fleet data and how this influences the niose levels, it provides livability indicators.
The study offers recommendations to policy makers for analysing different criteria (noise levels, air quality, accessibility, safety) of traffic impact
The project has dealed with both economic, environmental and social aspects of sustainable mobility and an integrated methodology for evaluating traffic plans in municipalities and cities is proposed.