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Integrated Models of Airlines for a Green Impact on the New Economy

European Union
Complete with results
Geo-spatial type
Total project cost
€496 600
EU Contribution
€372 450
Project Acronym
STRIA Roadmaps
Vehicle design and manufacturing (VDM)
Transport mode
Airborne icon
Transport policies
Societal/Economic issues,
Environmental/Emissions aspects
Transport sectors
Passenger transport,
Freight transport


Call for proposal
Link to CORDIS

Project IMAGINE aimed at developing operational constraints and cost models representative of airline operations.

As part of the MTM activity of CleanSky’s SGO ITD, these models were integrated in the GATAC Optimisation framework to add the operational and economic dimensions to the multi-criteria optimisation of flight trajectories.

IMAGINE developed models for:

  • Operational constraints (aircraft and operations limitations, minimum turn-around time, etc.);
  • “Basic operations costs” (Aircraft ownership, maintenance, landing and navigation, overhead, etc.);
  • Environmental costs (ETS, airport emission charges, noise charges…);
  • Crew costs;
  • Fleet and schedule related costs, including revenue opportunities and losses.

The originality of IMAGINE relied on:

  • The ability to address all the costs with different models: simulation based, statistics based and OR based;
  • The ability to handle fleet-wide problems in a single optimisation run and take into account interactions between the flights (for example for crew pairings and schedule impacts);
  • The ability to propose near-exact models (with high accuracy but requiring many airline parameters) or approached models based on the innovative surface response methodology, which is well adapted to a generic optimisation framework such as GATAC;
  • The validation of the models against real airline data exploiting different types of aircraft: regional turboprops, single-aisles and widebodies;
  • The ability of the consortium to deliver industry-level object-oriented code for the implementation of the model.

The consortium involves 2 SMEs with extensive experience in aviation, environment and the development of costs models and optimization engines used daily within different models of airlines.

Finally, the participants have experience in handling such projects, the coordinator having taken a key role in the Clean Sky projects CARING and BASE on flight trajectory optimization and economic modelling of environmental constraints.


Parent Programmes
Institution Type
Public institution
Institution Name
European Commission
Type of funding
Public (EU)
Specific funding programme
JTI-CS - Joint Technology Initiatives - Clean Sky
Other Programme
JTI-CS-2012-2-SGO-03-019 OTC-Operational (Technical) Constraints Model & OBM - Operation Business Model AUI - Aircraft Usage Impact Model


Executive Summary:

Project IMAGINE was a Clean Sky project with focus on economic cost modelling.

Its objectives were:

  • Design models for direct operating costs;
  • Implement models as GATAC compatible modules that can be used in a trajectory optimization campaign;
  • Deliver models to the GATAC team.

The objective was to complement the GATAC trajectory optimisation platform with implementations of economic models. This allowed GATAC to produce new optimal trajectory that can be both environmentally friendly and economically acceptable by airlines.


Lead Organisation
Avenue Frédéric Estèbe 30, 31200 Toulouse, France
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€241 800
Partner Organisations
Euro Decision
Rue De La Porte De Buc 9, 78000 Versailles, France
EU Contribution
€130 650


Technology Theme
Aircraft operations and safety
Trajectory Based Flight Operations
Development phase

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