"Kap" stops – requirements and impacts (VSS2005/802)
Original Language Title: Kaphaltestellen - Anforderungen und Auswirkungen
"Cape" stops ("Kap" stops) are advanced edges of the pedestrian path to secure the boarding for passengers. In addition, it makes it more comfortable and attractive. With this research project further impacts on the public transportation are to be investigated (flow of traffic, security) and suggestions for the constructions of these stops need to be finalised.
Due to technical literature and existing constructions the objective of the project is to investigate the impacts of "cape"-stops on public transportation as well as to come up with suggestions how to construct and elaborate further "cape"-stops. Impacts on the flow of traffic and its security as well as the limits of the application need to be investigated in regards to these stops. Criteria for their arrangements need to be shown. In this connection, the question of how many stops can build in a row is to rise as well. Passengers, disabled persons, public transportation and bicycles are to take into consideration for any suggestions of the construction.
Following steps will be done during the project:
- Literature review
- Existing installations (examples)
- Definition of the term, delimitation of the research (in consultation with EK8.03)
- Study of the issue on 2 levels:
- Assessment of expediency / arrangement of Cape stops
- Design of “Cape” stops
- Procedure using the concrete example of the road and track renewal Baslerstrasse Allschwil
- Simulation of impacts using the simulation program VISSIM
A tram cape is a stop where the sidewalk edges reach until the tracks. A bus cape requires as well advanced sidewalk edges. Cape stops are suitable to get on and off a public transport (PT) vehicle in a safer and more comfortable way, and they make public transport more attractive. The requirements and effects of cape stops are considered on 2 layers:
- Macro aspect: arrangement of cape stops (e.g. what happens to the traffic flow)
- Micro aspect: design of cape stops (e.g. how to handle bicycle traffic)
In a first step, an overview over already existing (or eventually planned) cape stops and normal on-street stops has been collected by a questionnaire and by deepening expert interviews. There are the following advantages and drawbacks seen from the viewpoints of different road users:
- Attractive conditions for passengers (comfortable waiting area, good access, good preconditions for handicapped access, high safety, shorter travel time, higher traveling comfort).
- Good conditions for tram / bus operators (travel time reduction, PT vehicles drive in front of car platoons).
- Restraining situations between tram tracks and sidewalk edges for bicyclists.
- Longer travel times for motorized individual traffic (MIT).
- Advantages for town construction (design / space consumption).
Basing on the survey, the following aspects of cape stops have been deepened, amongst others:
- The conflict between bicyclists (low sidewalk, large distance) and handicapped people requirements (high sidewalk, close to vehicle) is brought into evidence, but no generally valid recommendations can be given.
- The choice of on-street stops and cape stops is recommended by the literature until a MIT count of about 600-1'000 veh/h and per driving direction, depending on the particular study. The survey has shown that cape stops are used in Switzerland until a MIT count of about 1'000 veh/h and per direction.
- A suitable operation mode in stop areas is closely connected to the operation mode between the stops (mixed traffic or separate lane).
- Cape stops are often chosen because of less space consumption.
- Cape stops and on-street stops close to the sidewalk are the safest form of PT stops.
Different aspects are shown by the chosen example case of street and track renewal of Baslerstrasse in Allschwil. A comparison of the existing state with the future street arrangement shows that th
Swiss Federal Roads Office
Rudolf Keller & Partner Verkehrsingenieure AG