Innovations, in the framework given for this study, are characterised by improvement of a process, an organisation of a method. The result of an innovation shows as reduction of costs or increase of revenues through improvements of logistics result variables.
Thus, the innovation system of the manufacturing industry's logistics is not about inventing, developing and marketing new products, or solving functionality problems with established products. Rather, it is about generating new ideas and implementing them, for instance as process changes, new methods and ways of work, new flow structures and new organisations.
The purpose of the innovations system analysis is to map and characterise the innovation system of the Swedish manufacturing industry and the involved logistics service providers. The analysis provides input to VINNOVA's R&D programme in the growth area of Innovative logistic systems and freight transport to govern R&D investments 2004 to 2007.The R&D programme is intended to support both shippers and logistics service providers implying that the innovation system analyses provides a holistic view upon logistics and covers the full supply chains.
The project was based upon literature studies, but mainly through interviews with industry organisations in the manufacturing field. In addition, selected manufacturing companies and their logistics service providers were interviewed. Three smaller case studies provided a deeper picture of the industry.
1. A probabilisticDynamic Truck Model
A probabilistic truck dynamic model has been developed to represent a typical truck population including 1-, 2- and 5-axle trucks with an allowance for articulation in the latter. Computer simulations have been developed and tested for the dynamic motion of trucks travelling on road pavement and across bridges. A Spatial Repeatability Model was developed and is operational although it has not been calibrated using real field data at present. It is possible to use the model to accurately predict mean patterns of applied force to pavements.
2. Pavement Deterioration Model
A computer model has been developed which models all parts of the pavement deterioration process including dynamic motion of the vehicles, fatigue and hence deterioration of pavement over time and feedback of this deformation into the pavement profile to generate new patterns of applied dynamic force.
3. Multiple Sensor Weigh-in-Motions
The spatial repeatability model of WP1.2 has been used to simulate and therefore correct the errors in Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems that result from the dynamic motion of trucks. The results have proved more accurate than any algorithm developed in the past.
4. Bridge Traffic loading
A framework has been developed which allows for the accurate calculation of characteristic stresses on bridges with and without new heavier truck configurations. A value of 5.8% has been found for the dynamic iteration of a single moving truck with a bridge.
A further contribution has been made to the technology of weighing trucks in motion which has the potential to be used for automatic enforcement of legal truck weight limits in the near future.