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Mobility, Intermodality and Interchanges

European Union
Complete with results
Project Acronym
STRIA Roadmaps
Network and traffic management systems (NTM)
Smart mobility and services (SMO)
Transport policies
Societal/Economic issues
Transport sectors
Passenger transport


Background & Policy context

A major challenge for urban transport policy is to make intermodal

journeys more attractive and reduce traffic congestion. Part of the

solution lies in providing effective interchanges between the different

transport modes. However, there are various barriers to passengers' use of

interchanges. These barriers need to be identified and assessed from a

design, planning and management perspective in order to define the most

effective policy actions.


MIMIC aimed to provide policy-makers and developers with guidelines for

design, planning and management of passenger interchanges. The guidelines

were to cover four main areas:

the relative importance of the various factors that determine

travellers' choice of modes, including both the interchange

characteristics and aspects of the overall trip;

the impact of the interchange catchment area and feeder services on the

success of the interchange site;

the types of barriers for the different actors involved, and their

relative importance;

the development, implementation and assessment of site-specific



Parent Programmes
Institution Type
Public institution
Institution Name
European Commission; Directorate-General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN; formerly DG VII)
Type of funding
Public (EU)


MIMIC has developed and tested a series of surveying and modelling tools that can help planners, designers and managers to systematically analyse interchanges, taking into account the various kinds of barriers to their use by passengers. The tools will have their main application in the design stage of interchanges.


The key factors influencing the effectiveness of interchanges are:


  • logistical and operational factors, such as the failure to synchronise services between different modes;
  • psychological factors, notably the fear of crime in the area around the interchange;
  • institutional and organisational factors, particularly due to poor co-ordination between the many stakeholders;
  • the functional quality of the physical design and layout;
  • the ease of access to the interchange and the availability of parking;
  • economic and social factors, such as cost of travel and the development of commercial services at the interchange;
  • the availability of pre-trip and real-time information.


Recommendations and good practice guidelines were developed in each of these seven areas. For example:


  • co-ordination between operators is vital to provide through-ticketing, synchronised services and information;
  • commercial development of the site should be encouraged to generate income and reduce the fear of crime;
  • integrated management of interchanges is needed, rather than multiple stakeholders taking decisions independently.

Policy implications

MIMIC highlighted significant gaps in knowledge about improving intermodality by optimising interchanges. The project made a series of recommendations for policy actions to reinforce good practice in interchange design:


  • Central and regional governments need to oversee the planning and co-ordination of interchanges. This will help to synchronise services through the interchanges and guide investment priorities for public transport.
  • Authorities should consider setting up a single body to be responsible for timetable co-ordination, information and through-ticketing.
  • Authorities should extend the guidance to public transport designers and operators to include good practice for the design of interchanges, especially focusing on the barriers facing people with special needs.
  • An independent body should be given the task of developing a Europe-wide standard for interchange signing and information.


MIMIC has shown that travellers attach great importance to the interchange when they choose whether to make intermodal trips. However, there are circumstances where the land-use and transport network characteristics of a city can substantially influence passengers' choices, much more than barriers at the interchange. Thus, good design is a necessary condition for a successful interchange, but not an over riding one.


Lead Organisation
EU Contribution
Partner Organisations
EU Contribution


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