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Optimal Regulation and Infrastructure for Ground, Air and Maritime Interfaces



Optimal Regulation and Infrastructure for Ground, Air and Maritime Interfaces

Background & policy context: 

Effective solutions to existing problems in long-distance door-to-door passenger transport chains, require the provision of attractive integrated networks and services. This is likely to require vision and co-operation between stakeholders in the public and private sectors.


ORIGAMI will build on the substantial body of knowledge on long-distance passenger transport already available from past and current projects (in particular KITE, LINK, INTERCONNECT, HERMES and CLOSER) and from other available literature. ORIGAMI will also collect substantial new data on the travel attitudes of long-distance travellers to alternative future transport provisions. The objective of ORIGAMI is to collate examples of current best practices and potential new technical solutions.


One strand of work will analyse: the technical solutions, investigate the extent to which solutions found in one mode can be transferred to other modes, identify barriers to be overcome, and discuss the findings with stakeholders.

Another strand of work will investigate: traveller behaviour and attitudes in different countries and regions in order to identify the factors, demographics and traveller requirements which are likely to influence future trends in travel behaviour.

Scenarios will be developed to investigate alternative futures and pathways towards a successful intermodal transport system. A range of modelling approaches will be used to forecast the demand for different modal combinations in the different scenarios. Solutions will be evaluated against relevant criteria for European transport policy. Recommendations will be made and disseminated amongst policy makers and other stakeholders including industry representatives and researchers.

Institution Type:
Institution Name: 
The European Commission
Type of funding:
Key Results: 

The main result of the project is a web directory of best practice examples and suggested solutions on optimising long-distance passenger transport by enhancing intermodality and co-modality. The examples are also classified by theme (safety, management, financing etc.), by mode and involved stakeholders (road, rail, air, ferry), by status (under implementation, existing, pilot etc.), the applicability (last-mile, interchange, pre-trip etc.) and transferability.

The project has also developed four 2030 scenarios based on four parameters: liberalisation and regulation, infrastructure and management. Based on the scenarios,

  • the inter-regional (NUTS3 classification) trips accounted only for 7% of the total trips in Europe, will decrease to 6% by 2030.
  • the share of road will remain the main one used for long-distance passenger transport followed by air; however, the share value will differ based on the scenarios (47%-64%)
  • the air mode will rise between 31% and 36% in 2030 (26% in 2010)
  • if measures are taken (e.g. decrease on average road speed, integrated pricing policies, the High Speed Rail network finalisation and rail efficiency) the modal shift -mainly from road- could be up to 20% for rail
  • the policies targeting road efficiency provide the highest returns
  • the unit costs for air are on average 60% than those of rail/ road all costs considered

Policy implications

During its final conference the project will present several policy recommendations based on the outcomes of its scenarios, namely:

  1. Enhancing real time interaction between transport carriers and passengers
  2. Implementing online pricing systems, particularly on roads, for a better service management
  3. Promoting new and smarter vehicles
  4. More integrated intermodal exploitation
  5. Favouring Public-Private infrastructure management
  6. Emphasising synergies with urban and regional development, and
  7. Applying Ex-ante and Ex-post evaluation with comparable criteria.

Strategy targets

An efficient and integrated mobility system: A single European transport area

  • University of Leeds
  • Mkmetric Gesellschaft für Systemplanung Mbh
  • Mcrit, S.L
  • Uniwersytet Gdanski
  • Istituto di Studi per L'integrazione dei Sistemi (Isis)
  • Technische Universitaet Wien
Contact Name: 
Prof. Christiane Bielefeldt
Edinburgh Napier University
Colinton Road
Contact country:
Link to CORDIS information: