Vehicular communications (VC) and inter-vehicular communications (IVC) bring the promise of improved road safety and optimised road traffic through co-operative systems applications. A prerequisite for the successful deployment of vehicular communications is to make them secure.
The specific operational environment (moving vehicles, sporadic connectivity, etc.) makes the problem very novel and challenging. Because of the challenges, a research and development roadmap is needed. SEVECOM was considered to be the first phase of a longer term undertaking. In this first phase, we aim to define a consistent and future-proof solution to the problem of VC/IVC security.
SEVECOM focused on communications specific to road traffic. This included messages related to traffic information, anonymous safety-related messages, and liability-related messages.
The overall approach was the following:
- Take into account existing results available from on-going eSafety projects such as PREVENT or GST in terms of threat analysis and security architecture.
- Work in close liaison with new IST e Safety projects which will focus on C2C application and road network infrastructures. Common workshops will be held in order to reach a consensus on the security threats and the proposed mechanisms.
- Take into account on-going standardisation work at the level of security such as ISO15764 – Extended Data Link Security or ISO/CD20828 – Security Certificate Management, or at the level of communication (ISO2121x serie on CALM – Continuous Air interface for Long and Medium distance).
- Integrate SeVeCom mechanisms into a use case development which is based on the V2V/V21 infrastructure used by eSafety projects.
- Investigate the necessary conditions for deployment. This includes the provision guidelines for security evaluation and certification, as well as the definition of a roadmap. This will include discussion on organisational issues (e.g. key and certificate management).
The Project WPs were as follows:
- WP1: Requirements
- WP2: Architecture and Security Mechanisms Specification
- WP3: Focused Development and Integration into Selected Infrastructure
- WP4: Integration in Use Cases
- WP5: Approaches for Security Evaluation
- WP6: Liaison, Dissemination and Exploitation
- WP7: Project Management
The following research and innovation work was carried out:
- Identification of the variety of threats: attacker's model and potential vulnerabilities; in particular, study of attacks against the radio channel and transferred data, but also against the vehicle itself through internal attacks, e.g. against TCU (Telematics Control Unit), ECU (Electronic Control Unit) and the internal control bus.
- Specification of architecture and of security mechanisms which provide the right level of protection. It was addressed issues such as the apparent contradiction between liability and privacy, or the extent to which a vehicle can check the consistency of claims made by other vehicles. The following topics were fully addressed: Key and identify management, Secure communication protocols (including secure routing), Tamper proof device and decision on crypto-system, Privacy. The following topics were investigated in preparation of further work: Intrusion Detection, Data Consistency, Secure Positioning, Secure User Interface.
- The definition of cryptographic primitives which take into account the specific operational environment. The challenge was to address (1) the variety of threats, (2) the sporadic connectivity created by moving vehicles and the resulting real-time constraints, (3) the low-cost requirements of embedded systems in vehicles. These primitives were adaptations of existing crypto-systems to the V2V/V21 environment.