Mobility Management (MM) and Travel Awareness (TA) have many advantages as soft policy strategies: They are flexible, adaptable, rapid to implement, and offer value-for-money. Several sustainable transport research and demonstration projects at the European, national and local levels have covered Mobility Management and Travel Awareness, but in isolated projects, limited to larger cities and pilot demonstrations. After the two biggest projects in this area so far, MOST and TAPESTRY, further similar projects with a focus on demonstrations would probably not deliver new insights.
The European research project MAX addressed the issues of the research domain 1.3 'Advancing knowledge on innovative measures in urban transport' within the task 'Research to support the European Transport Policy' of the objective 1 'New Technologies and concepts for all surface transport modes (road, rail and waterborne)' of the Thematic Priority 1.6.2 'Sustainable Transport Systems, and aims to bring new perspectives, to critically review and enrich the work accomplished so far by linking MM and TA and exploiting their synergies.
MAX set out to link Mobility Management (MM) and Travel Awareness (TA) in one comprehensive research project to exploit synergy effects in order to:
- improve the quality and impact of MM;
- contribute to proving the validity and success of MM;
- achieve the necessary standardisation (especially for evaluation);
- open new fields, especially in connection with planning.
The project focused on the following four research areas.
- Innovative approaches in Travel Awareness. An analysis of campaigning, advertising, social marketing (also in non mobility fields) will be carried out, studying how they work, and the underlying theories. Furthermore, the project will define, prioritise and select the main research questions (campaigning the campaign, credibility of the message giver, campaign design - emotional vs. rational, transferability of non transport campaigns, underlying behavioural model of campaigns, combination of hard and soft measures, impact of cultural background, linking awareness raising with education).
- Behaviour change models and prospective assessment. An analysis of the underlying theories and reliability of existing models and evaluation techniques and results will be carried out. The main research gaps have become quite clear. They are the theory gap (there is no systematic gathering of knowledge), and the method gap (evaluation is most often inadequate). A standard model of behaviour change and a categorisation system of behavioural change techniques will be developed, an own evaluation study will be carried out, and a new As a result a new predictive tool will be developed to be used by practitioners.
- Quality management and MM for smaller cities. An analysis of existing quality management systems and their application in general and in transport (EFQM, TQM, ISO 9000 etc.) will be carried out, and the different topics investigated (e.g which of the analysed systems is best for MM, should QM in MM be incorporated in other QM systems (for example environment) or stand alone, benefits and barriers for implementation of QM in MM, which elements of MM should be included into the QM process, how to maintain integrity and credibility in the QM process, development of a MM audit system for smaller cities (below 200.000), how to sell QM in MM to practitioners).
- Integrating planning and MM. An analysis of theory and practise of integrating Land Use Planning with transport and MM will be performed. The research will be differentiated into planning levels: national level, urban level, site level. A number of topics will be investigated (e.g. under which conditions is the market willing to accept MM regulation, what it could be the place of MM in the different levels, stages and instruments within the spatial planning (SP) process, how framework conditions influence the way in which MM can be integrated
The main outcome is a set of integrated tools designed to make it easier to implement high quality MM measures:
- MaxExplorer. A decision support guide for MM measures. This user-friendly tool supports decision makers and MM practitioners (in particular less experienced users) to select suitable MM measures according to specific target group characteristics and project location. More specifically this tool helps users to:
- select suitable measures for their organisation and situation;
- further develop projects and schemes at the local level with reference to the characteristics of the target group;
- benefit from the experience of experts in choosing appropriate measures;
- discover Mobility Management through a general overview of a wide range of measures;
- compare the effects of MM measures by providing the opportunity to look at the relevance and the possible efficiency of different types of measures in different situations, through a multi-criteria assessment;
- understand the variety of different MM measures, as MaxExplorer covers many common situations, from Company Mobility Plans to Walking Buses for Schools or Travel Awareness Campaigns.
- provision of a
The main recommendations relate to the development of a future fully-functional European Prospective Assessment Tool (PAT). This PAT should be developed as a combination of three primary elements that serve as the 'heart' of the predictive functioning of the model:
- A set of demand elasticities for price- and service-based measures (including public transport fare discounts, public transport service expansion or new services, alternative mode incentives, etc.), referred to as 'harder' MM measures because they involve pricing or service provision.
- A set of experiential relationships based on the benchmarking function of MaxEva or other comparative evaluation studies and their findings. These are referred to as 'softer' measures because they involve promotion and information. Comparative cross-sectional analysis from MaxEva or another dataset would provide a relationship in the form of average mode shift impacts from a given MM measure when applied to a certain target group.
- Inclusion of a behavioural change module from MaxSem that provides results that are not strictly related to mode shift impacts. Rather this 'stage diagnostic' module would provide estimates of the proportion of the target population what would move between stages as a result of the offer of a given measure. As such, the PAT would estimate shifts to more sustainable modes (mode shift) and precursor behavioural shifts (stage shifts).
The main features of this PAT should be:
- a user-friendly interface and instructions, requiring no knowledge of 'transport modelling';
- minimal user inputs and reliance on existing data (no new surveys needed);
- easy navigation in model and simple means to save and report impact forecasts;
- able to predict impacts of packages of measures by assessing interactive effects.
The inputs of this PAT should include:
- number of travellers and the type of the target group (company, target market, students, etc.);
- average trip characteristics (travel time, trip distance, vehicle occupancy);
- type of application setting (city centre, employment centre, suburban area, well/poor accessibility by foot, bike, public transport, etc.).
The outputs should include:
- baseline and projected mode shares and proportional changes;
- baseline and projected vehicle trips and proportional changes;
- baseline and projected vehicle kilometres of travel and prop