Reduction of emissions in shipping is currently driven by new regulations and impact on wealth and climate change, while traffic steadily grows at up to 6% rates yearly in spite of economic recession. Ships on port approach, manoeuvering up to mooring and on loading and unloading, also affect the local population.
TEFLES addresses both sea and at port emissions scenarios by developing after treatment technologies and combining a selection of innovative and promising technologies with potential high impact, integrating them and assessing their impact with models on sea and port operation scenarios. In addition to after treatment solutions, novel applicable technologies reducing emissions in operations and reductions in the time of operations at port are also considered. Shore power connection, power generation, propulsion, and advanced use of residual heat applications are included as high potential impact emission reduction solutions.
The assessed technology solutions and models are then integrated on the impact models of the sea and port scenarios, and then validated on a Atlantic MoS scenario including head ports. The simulation models will also be applicable to other shipping scenarios. Economic aspects, cost benefit, and regulatory and policy issues are further considered. IMO, EMSA, and national and regional administrations will be consulted, and an end users' group will be set up to enlarge the partnership, which already includes ports, specialised industries, and a shipyard. A Short Sea Shipping Association and one of the most qualified MoS operators have adhered through letters of interest. Each scenario model will be completed with a final workshop after validation. Dissemination through Beta testing seminars on use of the models will be provided, as well as a web page. The general objective is to develop technologies and operation strategies for reduction of ROROs and ferries emissions in all operating conditions.
The first level of objectives is: Assessment and validation of new cost-effective technologies and systems for after treatment, scrubbing and other exhaust treatments. Assessment and validation of new cost effective procedures for minimizing emissions from main propulsion engines on approach and manoeuvering, including speed reduction, improved approach and manoeuvering and alternative hybrid generation and propulsion Minimizing emissions by assessment and validation of efficient supply and use, of energy for auxiliary powering port Definition and validation of an optimized scenario model for emission reduction at sea (MoS, cruise and ferry vessels) Definition and validation of an optimized scenario model for emission reduction at port approach and manoeuvering (MoS, cruise, ferry) Definition and validation of an optimized scenario model for ships in port operation (MoS, ferry, cruise an
The methodology for a successful execution of this project is based on a structured combination of research and development activities in order to develop and combine after treatment, hydrodynamics and power generation technologies for emission reduction in ships, and structured activities in scenario building, in order to analyse the impact of combinations of the technologies into real-life ship operations (at sea, approach and manoeuvering, at port). The work plan has a clear result-oriented focus, dividing the activities into natural work packages with clear deliverables.
WP 2 has an approach on after treatment solutions with focus on reducing emissions and specially sulphur oxides, benchmarking and reducing the cost and payload of the available systems and optimizing the heat recovery to reduce fuel consumption.
WP 3 has an approach consisting in reducing the time and therefore the emissions on port entrance and manoeuvering until mooring, focusing on ship-tug interaction, propeller-rudder interaction at low speed, and manoeuvering on adverse meteorological conditions and shallow waters.
WP 4 has an approach of developing the knowledge needed to model and assess combinations of technologies resulting in simplified hybrid propulsion systems for ships, able to reduce exhaust gas emissions at low and fluctuating loads, like during harbour approach and docking manoeuvers, including interaction with service boats as tugs.
WP 5 handles the first scenario selected: the emissions reduction at sea on short distances to complete the port-to port complete trip reduction. Port of Vigo (being TEFLES partner) and Port of St Nazaire are two nodes of the Atlantic Motorways of the Sea. The ship types selected for this model are MoS containerships and feeders or ferries.
WP 6 handles the second scenario: emission reductions during port approach and manoeuvering using the port of Vigo and port of St Nazaire logistics to be used for the MoS.
WP 7 deals with the third scenario: when ship docked, assessing the alternative Shore Power Port boosting by cold ironing, to assess and optimize the potential benefits that “cold ironing” can bring in terms of emissions reductions.
WP 8 will make an assessment of the cost-efficiency aspects of emissions reduction scenarios elaborated in WP5, WP6 and WP7.
WP 9 deals with the dissemination and will include presentations on relevant related events, a web page complemented with newsletter for dissemination and publishing.
Mitigating maritime transport emissions
Europe has set ambitious goals to cut 60 % of carbon emissions in transport by 2050. An EU-funded project sought to make short sea shipping (SSS) more environmentally competitive as it is an important and high-efficiency means of transport.
The European Commission has placed limitations regarding the sulphur content for marine fuels used by inland waterway vessels and ships at berth in EU ports. As such, with effect from January 2010, Member States should ensure that marine gas oils are not placed on the market if sulphur exceeds 0.1 % by mass.
Motivated by stringent regulations regarding sulphur emission-controlled areas, the EU-funded project 'Technologies and scenarios for low emissions shipping' (http://tefles.eu/ (TEFLES)) focused on reducing emissions in maritime (i.e. SSS) traffic.
The logic behind the TEFLES project was to design new approaches for setting up various scenarios at sea, in coastal areas and in ports. These were then analysed with advanced computer simulation tools to record the most promising and cost-effective technologies available. Without these methods in place, it was estimated that any technology approaches and developments would be less effective.
TEFLES developed and combined after-treatment, hydrodynamics and power-generation technologies for emission reduction in ships. In particular, scientists developed and validated an innovative exhaust gas cleaning system that integrates a dry scrubber and a compact selective catalytic reactor. Although a slight increase in fuel consumption was noticed, sulphur oxides were reduced by over 90 % and heat recovery was increased by over 40 %.
Design of advanced hydrodynamic models helped reduce fuel consumption at sea and in port scenarios. Scientists also focused on reducing the time and therefore the emissions on port entrance and manoeuvring until mooring, focusing on tug, propeller and rudder interactions.
Another task was to develop models for loads and power supply systems for various types of ships and different port power supply infrastructures. TEFLES assessed the potential benefits that cold ironing can bring in terms of emission reductions and improved energy efficiency.
Project findings were disseminated widely via the project website, seminars, conferences, workshops, newsletters and several published scientific papers.