CIVITAS (City – Vitality - Sustainability) is a European Commission (Commission) initiative to promote cleaner and better transport in cities. Through the CIVITAS Initiative, the Commission aims to generate a decisive breakthrough in clean and better urban transport by supporting and evaluating the implementation of ambitious integrated and sustainable urban transport strategies that make a real difference for the mobility and quality of life of citizens.
Under the umbrella of the CIVITAS initiative, five European cities were clustered in the TELLUS project: Rotterdam (the Netherlands), Berlin (Germany), Göteborg (Sweden), Gdynia (Poland) and Bucharest (Romania). Within the TELLUS project 48 demonstration measures were implemented, which varied in number and differed widely regarding contents, type and underlying policies. Particular local circumstances, specific city characteristics as well as needs expressed, problems faced and priorities given shaped the selection of a specific set of innovative transport measures in each city.
The TELLUS project set itself ambitious transport-related, environmental and societal objectives to be reached after four years (2006). Moreover the project formulated target quantifications also for 2010. This orientation towards objectives emphasised the process character of the project not ending with its financial assistance but bringing effects for the city beyond this phase.
The specific objectives of the project were to:
- increase the modal share in favour of public transport;
- increase public transport use;
- reduce road casualties and injured people;
- reduce congestion;
- reduce car kilometres;
- increase bicycle kilometres;
- reduce air pollution and noise to levels below national and EC directives;
- reduce NOx emission from heavy traffic;
- reduce traffic related CO2 emissions and energy use;
- improve intra-organisational co-operation at the city level;
- achieve extensive political and public awareness for TELLUS;
- improved public-private co-operation.
Each city implemented a set of measures. There are no two cities that had exactly the same mix of measures. The number and spectrum of measures differed from city to city according to the focus identified as relevant for the respective city and the city’s role within the CIVITAS-Initiative (leading cities and followers). Rotterdam implemented 26 measures, Berlin 10, Göteborg 8, Bucharest 4, and Gdynia implemented only 1 measure.
The TELLUS demonstration measures were not an isolated attempt to improve the living conditions of the citizens, but they were integrated into the cities’ urban transport policies and plans. In general, the focus of the TELLUS project was on translating urban transport policy into practical implementation of innovative measures, whereas ‘innovative’ is understood in the city-specific context. However, not all measures were concerned with implementation, but some aimed at preparing the ground while others supported strategies and measures by developing a concept to be implemented later and/or through a different scheme. Out of the 48 TELLUS measures 28 were aiming at direct implementation, 17 at concept development and implementation, and 3 measures developed concepts only.
This form reports on the TELLUS results relating to the CIVITAS policy field “Integrated Pricing Strategies” according to the demonstration site (Berlin, Bucharest, Göteborg, Gdynia, Rotterdam) and measure. If you are interested in the TELLUS results relating to other CIVITAS policy fields, please see the form "TELLUS (Overview)" available on the TRKC website to identify the exact name of the policy field and search the corresponding form on the TRKC website.
1) Berlin (Germany).
- Tele-parking System-new telematics-based system for city park parking.
This demonstration measure aimed at introducing a new parking management system in Berlin. This system uses an innovative technology, which enables a more flexible and more cost-efficient management of charged parking. Applying special modern mobile communication devices, the system replaces traditional payment, enforcement and fee collection methods. Cars and lorries must be equipped with so called in-board units, which are activated and deactivated for the particular parking process. With its activation the in-car unit displays parking rates and maximum allowed time; with its deactivation it displays the resulting parking charge. Current municipal parking fees and individual parking are transmitted from and to a central computing unit. The user's parking transactions are billed monthly. This kind of system allows precise accounting and even an efficient way of dealing with illegal or fraudulent on-street parking. The system also enables more flexibility regarding the application of variable pricing schemes for influencing the parking demand.
The parking system was realised in a specified area within the city centre to demonstrate its practical use and acceptance. As a further part of the demonstration a suitable public-private partnership was constituted to prepare the wider introduction after successful demonstration.
For what concern the customer acceptance, the service (Handy Parken) started at the beginning of February 2005 and in October there were about 5,600 accounts with about 7,200 phones. The numbers have since continued to rise. The survey respondents use "Handy Parken" regularly; mostly 1-3 times a week. As to quality of service, survey respondents were asked to evaluate some "Handy Parken" servic
The policy implications relating to the CIVITAS policy field “Integrated Pricing Strategies” according to the demonstration site (Berlin, Bucharest, Göteborg, Gdynia, Rotterdam) and measure are as follows.
1) Göteborg (Sweden).
- Incentives for purchasing of CNG heavy-duty vehicles.
- The infrastructure is necessary for a breakthrough. More fuel stations for biogas are needed and more vehicle models in combination with lower purchase prices are required.
- Prepare the project with extensive research and involve all actors at an early stage. Results will probably be achieved earlier.
- The method of communicating the concept of clean vehicles to companies is different compared to communicating the same concept to the public. Business to business is built on direct relationships and takes longer time.
- If results are wanted quickly, financial support and co-operation is important as well as having media to write about what is happening.
- The authorities are crucial when it comes to benefits and taxes. Other incentives are also important.
- It is important to have long-term strategies for incentives to make clean vehicles become an economical option for purchasers and for the expansion of the infrastructure of alternative fuels. It is also crucial to have strategies to influence the vehicle industries to bring more models of clean vehicles to the market.
- To increase the clean vehicle fleet, companies require other arguments such as financial rather than environmental. Emphasis is placed on lifecycles rather than purchasing costs (Knowledge about vehicle models and infrastructure of fuels are arguments that work).
- Keep up the good networking within the CIVITAS initiative. The networking creates knowledge and competence, the feedback is important for avoiding making the same mistakes again.
- this described measure is not only to be regarded as a considered measure, but a necessity to be adopted by other cities. Clean vehicles and fuels are important factors to influence our future to make an environmentally sound life on earth. The infrastructure and number of models need to be expanded and improved so that it will be as financially beneficial to the industry as conventional vehicles and fuels are today.