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Transport quality and efficiency of investments of the light two-wheeled and pedestrian traffic (VSS2007/306)

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Geo-spatial type
Project website
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Network and traffic management systems (NTM)
Transport mode
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Transport sectors
Passenger transport,
Active mobility



The objective of the research project is to get standard values of the capacity and quality of traffic conditions for the most important facility types for pedestrian and bicycle traffic. According to the traffic design methods in the existing norms related to capacity and quality of traffic conditions appropriate design processes are to be recommended. The focus lies on the definition of the measurement of the quality of traffic conditions as well as the level of the quality of the different facilities. The relations representing the Swiss conditions provide a basis for future standards.


For reasons of comparability, the gradation is after the standard SN 640 017A "performance, traffic quality, resilience" for the MIV defined and otherwise made widespread six-level-of-service concept. At most, finer gradations are drafted for individual plant species in a first step, allowing a differentiated choice of the LOT limits, so that a subsequent adjustment of the boundaries is made possible in the context of intermodal consideration.

When drafting the correlations for assessing the performance and quality of traffic to the various systems of the light two-wheeled and pedestrian traffic four different methods are:

  • Modelling of traffic flow for estimating relevant measurements and influence quantities
  • Evaluation of previous findings (literature review)
  • Empirical studies for calibration of existing guideline values for CH ratios and completing missing links
  • Traffic simulations for completing missing links

The four methods are used differently depending on the scope of existing knowledge and according to the possibilities raised by the surveys and simulations for each type of plant.

For the quantification of parameters of pedestrian traffic the applicant may have recourse to various collection and simulation methods for recording / simulation of pedestrian flows due to reference projects. They differ with regard to the resources used, but also with regard to suitability for various traffic situations (type of system and traffic flow).

Based on the findings from the investigations described are to be developed for individual plant types recommendations for standardisation.


Parent Programmes
Institution Type
Public institution
Institution Name
Swiss Government: State Secretariat for Education and Research
Type of funding
Public (national/regional/local)


The results of the project comprises two main parts, each of which was carried out by a separate project team:

Light-weight two-wheeled vehicles

Within the context of light-weight two-wheeled vehicle research, the following facilities were studied: 

  • Waiting areas on cycle lanes at intersections with traffic lights  (with and without widened cycle lanes)
  • Cycle path crossings without traffic lights
  • Cycle lanes
  • Cycle paths and cycle path / footpath facilities
  • Combined bus / cycle lanes 

An evaluation of the literature was undertaken based on aspects of capacity, service level features and assessment procedures.  Capacity figures are only available for cycle lanes and cycle paths, and available information in respect thereof is extremely varied. By the same token, the quality characteristics given are predominantly for the linear elements of traffic flow; there is no information whatsoever on crossings and waiting areas.  The literature contains widely differing approaches to quality assessment.  The American approach based on the number of encounters (vehicles passing in the opposite direction or overtaking) is extended to cycle lanes and cycle paths. 

In order to make the approach used by the Highway Capacity Manual transferable to cycle lanes and cycle path / footpaths, a measurement was made of bicycle traffic velocity distribution. These measurements showed that average speeds lie well above those found not only in the USA, but also in Germany, and that the standard deviation is also greater.  This result should be applied in the case of e-bikes, etc. Since there was no reference to any evaluation of waiting areas in the literature, a range of different waiting areas was studied using video monitoring equipment.  The results obtained provide a basis for further calculation.

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