A rapid market development of electric mobility is in view of the turnover of the German automotive industry in the amount of 315 billion € and the generated trade surplus of about 90 billion € an important objective. In addition, the electric mobility offers a variety of environmental potentials. In addition to the zero local emissions (noise, pollutants) , it opens the opportunity for climate policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector dramatically. The realization of the potential depends on the use of renewable energy. The policy objectives of the Federal Government in Germany for the uptake of electric vehicles and the planned increase in the share of renewable energies in electricity supply may suggest that the transformation of electricity supply must be before the transformation of the transportation sector. However, both developments are not independent. Wanted are factors that enable linkage and mutual reinforcement of both development processes.
The project "Vehicle-focussed analyses on the integration of electric vehicles into the electric grid in the context of the utilisation of renewable energy sources" is engaged in the identification, analysis, evaluation and development of business models for smart grid integration of electric vehicles. The grid integration of electric vehicles is regarded mainly in terms of intelligent combination of renewable energy and electric vehicles.
Thanks to research projects, scientific research and practical activities of market players, five business models were identified and considered relevant for the project:
Optimization of private power consumption from Photovoltaic and CHP (Combined heat and power plants) with electric vehicles.
Participation in the Energy Trading market (V2G: Vehicle to Grid).
Participation in the balancing power market
controlled charging as part of a “green power product”
- spot market oriented charging with variable tariffs.
The examined business models are very different in terms of:
The revenue potential – today and in 2020/2030
Barriers by law
Basically, it can be noted that business models, which require a Pool Coordinator and energy suppliers (all business models except concepts of private electricity use), may be profitable only with a large number of vehicles in a pool (high penetration, high market share)because of the transaction costs. The market entry threshold is currently still very high. In the medium term, a significant economic advantage for energy suppliers can be stated. From the perspective of the end user higher absolute revenues for frequent drivers (diesel drivers, car sharing) are possible because the operating costs have a significantly higher proportion of the total cost of the vehicle.
Findings of the study are published in detail by a final report (German only) which is available online via the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety: