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This report by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the European Union Agency for Railways (ERA) uses patenting data from the European Patent Office as an indicator of global trends in innovation, and studies the comparative strengths of the EU, China, Japan, the US and South

Adequate research and innovation (R&I) is paramount for the seamless development, testing, adoption and integration of new rail concepts and technologies. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of R&I initiatives in Europe in this field. The assessment follows a structured methodology

A complete transition to transporting all freight by rail is not feasible for many companies worldwide. This study assesses the potential of road-rail intermodal operations as strategies to reduce polluting air emissions. It was found that intermodal road-rail operations could reduce emissions by 77

A study examined the development of digital innovation to improve connectivity, visibility and maritime supply chains in Northwestern Europe. It identified stakeholder collaboration, stakeholder’s approach to change, technology and the role of the public sector as key factors to stimulating

An analysis of the evolution of the main communication technologies deployed in railways identified standardisation, interoperability, scalability, energy efficiency and cyber security as key challenges. These issues need to be addressed if the benefits of enabling technologies are to be exploited.