Motorcycle and moped fatalities account for 17,8% of the total number of road accident fatalities in Europe and, compared to a passenger car occupant, a motorcycle rider is 26 times more likely to die in a crash, based on vehicle miles travelled, as riders are among the vulnerable road users.
SAFERIDER aimed to enhance PTW riders' safety by applying ADAS/IVIS on PTWs of all types for the most crucial functionalities and develop efficient and rider-friendly interfaces and interaction elements for riders' comfort and safety. Relevant applications prioritisation was based on in-depth accident studies, riders needs and wants, as well as benchmarking and ergonomic inspection of existing applications. The selected functionalities were developed according to a modular and multi-layer (perception-decision-action) architecture, allowing multi ADAS/IVIS applications setup and integration.
Four ADAS applications were preliminary planned to be developed, namely Speed Alert, Curve Speed Warning, Frontal Collision Warning and Intersection Support; as well as four IVIS applications, namely eCall, Telediagnostic Services, Navigation and Route Guidance, Weather, Traffic and Black Spot Warnings. They were supported holistically by optimal and concise warning concepts and strategies, supported by new haptic elements, an integrated smart helmet and context-related HMI adaptation; integrated upon three riding simulator and eight PTW demonstrators of three manufacturers (PIAGGIO, TRIUMPH and YAMAHA) and tested in six sites Europe-wide.
Within its tasks, SAFERIDER aimed:
- To develop priority Use Cases for ARAS/OBIS implementation on PTWs.
- To define the functionalities of the prioritised ARAS/OBIS for PTWs of different levels, based on accident analysis data and naturalistic driving studies.
- To design and develop ARAS/OBIS prototypes for the selected functionalities.
- To design an optimal HMI concept and develop warning/ information provision elements for the prototypes, as well as for potential combinations of their output.
- To technically verify the developed ARAS/OBIS and integrate them to different motorcycles and motorcycle simulators.
- To estimate the safety impact and user acceptance of the prototypes in a series of pilot applications.
- To develop a Design Guidelines handbook for ARAS/OBIS integration and HMI design for motorcycles.
- To develop riders training tools for optimal ARAS/OBIS usage.
SAFERIDER project developed and demonstrated the full feasibility and effectiveness of five Advanced Rider Assistance Systems (ARAS) functions. Namely:
- The Speed Alert (SA) provides a warning to the rider if the legal speed limit is exceeded.
- The Curve Warning (CW) function is based on the concept of comparing the actual rider manoeuvre with a safe reference manoeuvre. The safe reference manoeuvre should be a feasible manoeuvre that complies with system dynamics, trajectory constraints and safety criteria in a 'human-like' riding style.
- The Frontal Collision Warning (FCW) evaluates the motorcycle state in order to check whether it is in a safe state. A state is safe if there is an emergency braking manoeuvre that avoids collision whatever the former vehicle(s) does.
- Intersection Support (IS)aims to efficiently warn the rider against possible collisions with fixed or moving obstacles at road intersections.
- Lane Change Support (LCS) is to warn the driver in case a potential lane change is critical in terms of a potential collision.
SAFERIDER developed On-Bike Information Systems (OBIS) that are based on four-wheel vehicles' IVIS and has demonstrated that the OBIS functions implemented and tested are reaching some riders needs. The following for OBIS functions are developed:
- The eCall system is based on the capacity of Powered-Two-Wheelers (PTW)
to detect and remotely provide information as the location of a crash or fall.
- Telediagnostics services provide added value for the rider by monitoring constantly the use and functioning conditions of the vehicle.
- Navigation & Route Guidance (N&RG) provides a key function for novice riders and tourist by integrating On-BIKE System and positioning data.
- N&RG: Weather, traffic and Black spot info. This function will integrate the navigation system with weather, traffic and accident data, in order to warn the vehicle occupant about potential dangers along the route.
The pilot tests that were done made it possible to collect a large amount of information and feedbacks from test riders that will be very useful for the next steps.
An efficient and integrated mobility system: Acting on transport safety: saving thousands of lives