Today, a substantial and growing part of the movements of goods and people takes place within transnational value chains (TVCs) which are formed through the outsourcing and sourcing strategies of companies responding to the intensified international competition. A value chain consists of material flows, capital flows and information flows between companies involved in the production of a commodity or service.
Companies are highly aware of how transport of both goods and people affect their competitiveness, and they are placing high and rising demands on transportation services. Following these lines of argument, the proposed project focuses on how to enhance the efficiency, flexibility and reliability of sustainable modes of transport in ways that may promote industrial and regional development
The strategic objective for this project is to enhance the scientific basis of the applied empirical studies in this field in order to strengthen our competence and ensure TØIs competitiveness at both the national and the international arena.
Passenger and freight transport consist a significant cost component in the enterprises. In particular, business travel is expensive because it occupies exercise capacity, while it is necessary for value creation and competitiveness. It is therefore emphasized to increase knowledge about why and how business travel is conducted in Norwegian enterprises, and the impacts these journeys have for knowledge and innovation. As part of this work qualitative interviews, with managers is carried out in 16 Norwegian companies with substantial international involvement. Quantitative studies are carried out to selected travellers in most of these businesses, as well as analysis of business trips on basis of a travel survey for 2003-2009. The key data is analysed and results are presented in the form of a series of papers and articles.
In recent years, there has been an increased focus on effects that not are captured by the direct user benefits in cost-benefit analysis. The main socio-economic effects that are not captured in the current cost-benefit methodology can be summarized in four categories, and referred to as wider economic impacts. This is agglomeration, labour market effects, increased production in imperfect markets and increased competition in imperfect markets. Common for these is that they constitute gains from infrastructure investments for industry and trade. In the project there is build competence and developed a methodological tool to analyse such effects within the framework of a general equilibrium model with a geographic dimension. Submodules that takes into account each of the four market imperfections are developed, in order to calculate the wider economic benefits of infrastructure investments.
Predictable and efficient transport is important for trade and industry. Time spent in queues, especially in urban areas, is a factor contributing to increased transport costs and variability in delivery time. Being able to predict and understand how and where queues formed in road network, is important for traffic flow in the best possible way. A new simulation method has been tried out for roads in the Trondheim area. This method is called activity-based microsimulation, and defines a system in which traffic is generated from each individual traveller's needs to move from activity to activity throughout the day. Unlike in the current transport models there is a choice of departure time, inter alia, based on peak preceding day. Each car is simulated in such a way that a greater degree captures forming line and other dynamic effects than in the models used in Norway. In Trondheim, the method is tested in different toll-road solutions, with promising results.
The use of new dynamic models in Trondheim.
The model set a base for transport policy on national, regional and local level.