GALILEI is a cluster of studies under the Growth thematic programme of the 5th Research Framework Programme of the European Union. Together with five pilot projects, it forms part of on-going research work for the Galileo programme. It is managed by the EU Directorate General for Energy and Transport. GALILEI covers a set of fundamental topics ranging from purely technical issues to legal issues. The subjects addressed include interoperability with other infrastructures and services, the definition and specification of local elements, the standardisation and certification work to allow safe use of Galileo across the transport and telecommunication infrastructures, frequency planning, and market analyses and legal advice.
The objectives of the GALILEI cluster are to:
- ensure effective coordination between the tasks in the clustered contract, via a number of transverse coordination activities;
- provide a detailed definition of Galileo local elements, which are an integral part of the Galileo infrastructure and which will be fully integrated in enduser services that combine Galileo with other systems
- analyse in detail interoperability aspects and needs to ensure a fully optimised use of Galileo in combination with other systems;
- support the institutional actors in the frequency, standardisation and certification domains; set up a framework for gathering the user needs, and refine the assessments of Galileo markets;
- analyse the legal, institutional and regulatory environment and propose definition of associated frameworks;
- refine the definitions of the Galileo services.
Local Elements: this work is divided into the study of generic concerns that cover all possible local element configurations and custom-tailored studies into particularly interesting examples of local elements. Interfaces between the core system and the local elements are of particular interest.
Interoperability: Galileo will be one of several positioning and navigation systems available at the end of the decade. This task explores the requirement to maximise the interoperability of Galileo with existing and future systems.
Frequency Planning: GALILEI will ensure that Galileo interacts with the global telecommunications community so that the ideal frequencies are allocated to Galileo and protected from unauthorised use. The signal structures for Galileo’s signals will be refined in preparation for the development phase of the programme.
Standards & Certification: Galileo, as a positioning and navigation system, will have to fit into the existing global matrix of such systems and meet all standards and certification requirements. This is particularly important for Galileo’s safety-of-life navigation service. The results of GALILEI will assist the detailed design phase.
Market Analysis and Intelligence: Galileo, like any other new system, will emerge into a marketplace where the potential users will decide if they see real value in using a new system. The market analysis study will identify the most needed requirements and attempt to gauge the future market acceptability of the ‘product’. Such analysis is the best tool for optimising the cost/benefit ratio of the system.
Legal and Institutional Considerations: Galileo will be used, amongst others, for global safety-of-life navigation, where liability regimes are of paramount importance. The system will be operated by a private concessionnaire under a concession agreement with the public sector. These factors break new ground, and the consequent legal and institutional considerations are very wide-ranging. GALILEI is examining these complex issues raised by Galileo.
Service Definition: this task involves refining the service definition for Galileo. It is working closely with the others, particularly the market analysis task, in order to ensure that the users will get the services they require.
Coordination of Efforts: in a project like Galileo, it is fund
The coverage of Local Elements tends to be area specific. Some Local Elements will only provide spot coverage. For example the Maritime LE will only cover ports and their approaches. On the other hand, it is thought likely that the current CORS networks will grow to provide continuos coverage throughout Europe. LEs that will serve the transport domains of rail and road will be designed to provide coverage over linear corridors, which contain the transport arteries. However, the technology is such that it is difficult to focus the coverage over these arteries and so in practice service coverage will spill over surrounding areas.
It is recommended that the HLD should set the general operating strategy for Galileo, including the definition of the scope of the GCS operation and an outline Galileo Enterprise Model.
The Operational Issues Report has been written with reference to , Issue 5 of the MRD. It is recommended that the MRD is re-assessed, and modified if needed, with a pragmatic view of the consequences on processing capacity for the servicing of a large number of LE/SP requests. Service centre implementation should be detailed in the MRD. It should state that the data set sent by the SPF to the Service Centre includes integrity data and that these parameters should be sent on a real or near real time basis as a continuous stream.
The MRD should be modified to acknowledge that the TTA required for Local Commercial Service may vary according to the type of commercial service provided by the Local Element. Furthermore, the description of integrity dissemination strategy should be more explicit on the technique employed, i.e. to determine between integrity messages with time stamp (the solution recommended in GALA studies) or integrity messages only broadcast by connected satellites (solution recommended in Galilei studies and adopted in OS and Sol ICDs). In addition, the practicality of the interference monitoring scheme is unclear and the scheme should be re-assessed.
It is recommended that the SRD should be modified to include additional information about the interface from the Core System to LEs. The scenario considering the dissemination of messages by the Local Elements seems unlikely and should be reviewed. Furthermore, it is difficult to distinguish between service centres for the Core System, which serve global services and those for Local Elements. In this respect, the SRD appears to be out of step with the MRD.
There is a need for the overall structure of Galileo and especially the GOC to be resolved by creation of agreed system and enterprise models for GOC. A business model is required in order to address further the definition of the interface between the GOC and the LE. A clear policy decision is required concerning the involvement of the GOC with the LE sector but this must depend on a clear view of the technical, political and commercial factors involved. This policy should be stated clearly in the HLD and reflected in the MRD.
Documentation about the Galileo Core System from the GalileoSat B2 studies has not been made available to Galilei Task D, with the exception of the high level Galileo documents (HLD, MRD and SRD) and a summary paper about the Ground Mission Segment, which was published at the ION-2002 conference. Lack of access to these documents has limited the depth of this investigation. Thus it is conceivable that there are some misalignments between the work presented in the Operational Issues Report and the detailed characteristics of the Galileo Core System and its interfaces. In addition, no interaction has been possible with the team responsible for the Galileo Core System definition. This has impacted the present work especially in the area of interface definitions. There is also a lack of visibility of high-level system models for the Galileo system.
Non-navigation systems’ spurious emissions values given in ETSI leading to pessimistic results. So as to assess precisely the real impact of Non-Navigation Systems signals on a Galileo receiver:
A specific study should be conducted on the subject addressing both interference resistance improvement and non-regression. Moreover this analysis has only taken into account the User Equipment part of Non-Navigation Systems. Furthers studies should consider Repeaters and Base Stations signal power levels.
A database with real measured values of out-of-band emissions is required for each considered Non-Navigation Systems.
A description of the considered Galileo receiver (performances, application) is required. In particular, future standards (if available for the considered application) should define the minimum performance in the presence of interference. For the North American regions the above recommended studies have been performed for GPS. It is recommended that investigations be conducted to consider the effect of potential sources of interference will have on Galileo signals.