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TRIMIS

Enhanced Design Requirements and Testing Procedures for Composite Cylinders intended for the Safe Storage of Hydrogen

PROJECTS
Funding
European
European Union
Duration
-
Geo-spatial type
Other
Total project cost
€3 642 153
EU Contribution
€1 380 728
Project website
Project Acronym
HYCOMP
STRIA Roadmaps
Low-emission alternative energy for transport (ALT)
Transport mode
Multimodal icon
Transport policies
Societal/Economic issues,
Environmental/Emissions aspects,
Safety/Security,
Decarbonisation
Transport sectors
Passenger transport,
Freight transport

Overview

Call for proposal
FCH-JU-2009-1
Link to CORDIS
Objectives

Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. To improve volumetric and gravimetric performance, carbon fiber composite cylinders are currently being developed. However, current standards governing the design, qualification and in-service inspection of carbon fiber composite cylinders do not allow cylinder design to be optimised. In particular, safety factors for cycle life and burst pressure ratios appear to be conservative, which results in the cylinders being overdesigned and thus costly. Furthermore, the requirements in these standards are often not based on degradation processes in composite materials but have been adapted from standards covering metallic cylinders.

To address these issues, HyCOMP will conduct pre-normative research on high-pressure type III and type IV composite cylinders for hydrogen storage and transport for automotive, stationary and transportable applications. The project will generate all the data necessary to develop a comprehensive scientific and technical basis for fully justifying as well as improving the full set of requirements defined for ensuring the structural integrity of the cylinders throughout their service life, covering design type approval, manufacturing quality assurance, and in-service inspection.

The outcome of the project will be recommendations gathering broad support for improving the applicable European and international standards and regulation on high-pressure hydrogen cylinders for automotive, transport and stationary applications, as well as defining a strategy for implementing these changes. These recommendations will include performance-based design requirements, and improved procedures for type testing, batch testing and in-service inspections.

Funding

Parent Programmes
Institution Type
Public institution
Institution Name
European Commission
Type of funding
Public (EU)
Specific funding programme
JTI-CP-FCH - Joint Technology Initiatives - Collaborative Project (FCH)
Other Programme
SP1-JTI-FCH.2009.1.5 Pre-normative Research (PNR) on composite storage

Results

Executive Summary:

The European project HyCOMP, funded by the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Joint Undertaking (FCH-JU), started in January 2011 and finished in March 2014 (total duration: 39 months). HyCOMP whose full title is “Enhanced design requirements and testing procedures composite cylinders intended for the safe storage of hydrogen”, had for objective to generate all the scientific data necessary to improve the full set of existing requirements defined for ensuring the structural integrity of composite cylinders throughout their service life. These requirements are related to cylinder design, but also to testing procedures for type approval, manufacturing quality assurance and in-service inspection. Outcomes of HyCOMP are recommendations intended to Regulations, Codes and Standards, but also to the Industry.

HyCOMP is based on an experimental and numerical study. Damage mechanisms are first identified at a micro scale (plate specimens). Acoustic emission is the preferred technique to characterize the type of damage and its accumulation over time. A fine analysis of acoustic signals enables the classification of damage type usually encountered in composite materials: fibre breaks, delaminations, microcracks of the resin, etc. Damage accumulation is then quantified as a function of pressure loads (nature (static or cyclic) and level). Effects of environmental conditions like temperature and humidity are also assessed. These experimental results are used to feed a numerical model, able to simulate damage accumulation in composite materials, accordingly with experimental results. Both numerical model and experimental results are used to evaluate an intrinsic safety factor (iSF), covering intrinsic properties of composite materials.

Another part of the experimental work is conducted at a macro scale (cylinder structure). The effect of preconditioning on the residual strength of the cylinder is assessed. Preconditionning is a pressure test (static or cyclic) performed in controlled conditions to produce damage in the cylinder. Then residual strength is evaluated by a final destructive test (burst or cycling). Different types of preconditioning have been evaluated on both Type 3 and Type 4 cylinders: static pressure loads, cyclic pressure load (with different cycle amplitude), combination of both (and importance of the order), gaseous pressure loads, etc… It has been demonstrated that monitoring the evolution of mean value of the key parameter characterizing cylinder strength is not sufficient. Evolution of scattering is also of high importance. A probabilistic assessment of the key parameter is then proposed.

Different Non Destructive Testing techniques have been used in the project to monitor damage level on cylinder: Acoustic Emission and Optical Fiber. Both are promising techniques but require further research to be fully operational and reliable.

Another part of the experimental test program was to evaluate the influence of manufacturing process parameters on cylinder strength, on a short and long term. Different parameters were selected and implemented with big variations on cylinders. For type 3 and type 4 cylinders, initial performance is evaluated by a burst test, whereas long-term performance is assessed by a cycling test for type 3 cylinders and a burst test for type 4 cylinders after a preconditioning (sustained load simulating service life). Acoustic Emission is also used here to monitor cylinder during their first pressurization, in order to identify cylinders that deviate too much from a reference batch supposed to behave as expected.

Finally, a deep analysis of all the experimental results and existing requirements in current standards, allowed the identification of issues that needs to be improved and/or justified. A list of recommendations for design requirements and testing procedures, based on a scientific rationale, is then proposed. HyCOMP outcomes were presented during a public dissemination workshop organized on March 5th 2014 in AFNOR facilities in Paris. Audience gathered mainly people involved in standardization working groups, but also people from cylinder testing laboratories and manufacturers. Positive feedbacks and constructive comments were received from the audience.

Next step is the implementation of HyCOMP recommendations into existing standards.

Partners

Lead Organisation
Organisation
L Air Liquide Sa
Address
QUAI D ORSAY 75, 75007 PARIS 07, France
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€149 311
Partner Organisations
Organisation
Ayming
Address
185 AVENUE DES GRESILLONS, 92622 GENNEVILLIERS CEDEX, France
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€44 814
Organisation
Centro Ricerche Fiat - Societa Consortile Per Azioni
Address
Strada Torino, 50, 10043 ORBASSANO (TO), Italy
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€462 989
Organisation
The Ccs Global Group Limited
Address
CHURCH ROAD 11, GREAT BOOKHAM, KT23 3PB, United Kingdom
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€138 900
Organisation
The Ccs Global Group Limited
Address
CHURCH ROAD 11, GREAT BOOKHAM, KT23 3PB, United Kingdom
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€113 445
Organisation
Commissariat A L Energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives
Address
RUE LEBLANC 25, 75015 PARIS 15, France
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€246 907
Organisation
Commissariat A L Energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives
Address
RUE LEBLANC 25, 75015 PARIS 15, France
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€87 585
Organisation
Hexagon Raufoss As
Address
ENGGATA 40, 2830 RAUFOSS, Norway
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€240 280
Organisation
Eads Composites Aquitaine Sas
Address
ROUTE DE LACANAU 19, 33160 SALAUNES, France
EU Contribution
€302 760
Organisation
Eads Composites Aquitaine Sas
Address
ROUTE DE LACANAU 19, 33160 SALAUNES, France
EU Contribution
€54 246
Organisation
Association Pour La Recherche Et Le Développement Des Méthodes Et Processus Industriels
Address
Boulevard Saint Michel 60, 75272 Paris, France
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€208 547
Organisation
Bundesanstalt Fuer Materialforschung Und -Pruefung
Address
Unter Den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin, Germany
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€130 000
Organisation
Bundesanstalt Fuer Materialforschung Und -Pruefung
Address
Unter Den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin, Germany
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€277 503
Organisation
Politechnika Wroclawska
Address
Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50370 Wroclaw, Poland
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€532 556
Organisation
Politechnika Wroclawska
Address
Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50370 Wroclaw, Poland
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€71 051
Organisation
Faber Industrie Spa
Address
VIA DELL'INDUSTRIA 23, 33043 CIVIDALE DEL FRIULLI, Italy
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€1 497 995
Organisation
Faber Industrie Spa
Address
VIA DELL'INDUSTRIA 23, 33043 CIVIDALE DEL FRIULLI, Italy
Organisation website
EU Contribution
€133 946

Technologies

Technology Theme
Fuel cells and hydrogen fuel
Technology
Hydrogen storage system
Development phase
Validation

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