CIVITAS (City – Vitality - Sustainability) is a European Commission (Commission) initiative to promote cleaner and better transport in cities. Through the CIVITAS Initiative, the Commission aims to generate a decisive breakthrough in clean and better urban transport by supporting and evaluating the implementation of ambitious integrated and sustainable urban transport strategies that make a real difference for the mobility and quality of life of citizens.
Under the umbrella of the CIVITAS initiative, five European cities were clustered in the TELLUS project: Rotterdam (the Netherlands), Berlin (Germany), Göteborg (Sweden), Gdynia (Poland) and Bucharest (Romania). Within the TELLUS project 48 demonstration measures were implemented, which varied in number and differed widely regarding contents, type and underlying policies. Particular local circumstances, specific city characteristics as well as needs expressed, problems faced and priorities given shaped the selection of a specific set of innovative transport measures in each city.
The TELLUS project set itself ambitious transport-related, environmental and societal objectives to be reached after four years (2006). Moreover the project formulated target quantifications also for 2010. This orientation towards objectives emphasised the process character of the project not ending with its financial assistance but bringing effects for the city beyond this phase.
The specific objectives of the project were to:
- increase the modal share in favour of public transport;
- increase public transport use;
- reduce road casualties and injured people;
- reduce congestion;
- reduce car kilometres;
- increase bicycle kilometres;
- reduce air pollution and noise to levels below national and EC directives;
- reduce NOx emission from heavy traffic;
- reduce traffic related CO2 emissions and energy use;
- Iimprove intra-organisational co-operation at the city level;
- achieve extensive political and public awareness for TELLUS;
- Iimproved public-private co-operation.
Each city implemented a set of measures. There are no two cities that had exactly the same mix of measures. The number and spectrum of measures differed from city to city according to the focus identified as relevant for the respective city and the city’s role within the CIVITAS-Initiative (leading cities and followers). Rotterdam implemented 26 measures, Berlin 10, Göteborg 8, Bucharest 4, and Gdynia implemented only 1 measure.
The TELLUS demonstration measures were not an isolated attempt to improve the living conditions of the citizens, but they were integrated into the cities’ urban transport policies and plans. In general, the focus of the TELLUS project was on translating urban transport policy into practical implementation of innovative measures, whereas ‘innovative’ is understood in the city-specific context. However, not all measures were concerned with implementation, but some aimed at preparing the ground while others supported strategies and measures by developing a concept to be implemented later and/or through a different scheme. Out of the 48 TELLUS measures 28 were aiming at direct implementation, 17 at concept development and implementation, and 3 measures developed concepts only.
This form reports on the TELLUS results relating to the CIVITAS policy field “Innovative Soft Measures” according to the demonstration site (Berlin, Bucharest, Göteborg, Gdynia, Rotterdam) and measure. If you are interested in the TELLUS results relating to other CIVITAS policy fields, please see the form "TELLUS (Overview)" available on the TRKC website to identify the exact name of the policy field and search the corresponding form on the TRKC website.
1) Berlin (Germany).
- Customer and user participation.
This demonstration measure aimed at systematically introducing the customer perspective into the implementation process of the TELLUS demonstrations in Berlin. While doing this, several advantages were targeted by its actor P.O.P. Consulting. The demonstrators' knowledge base about potential or actual customers was to be increased. At an early stage it was intended to enable the Berlin demonstrations to improve or change details of their particular product or service according to the gained perceptions. It was envisaged that these details might contain reasonable price schemes, specific marketing measures or fitted product names. On the other hand it was expected to increase the customer acceptance of the new products or services by establishing long-term participation opportunities for customers.
P.O.P. dealt with a range of varying demonstration measures. As its role and potential contribution was not clear to all demonstrators from the beginning P.O.P. had to tackle some challenges. P.O.P. stated that it felt the need to not cling to some ideal participation concept but instead to adjust to actual needs of demonstration measures. This included for example support during the negotiations regarding complicated legal conditions or to overcome resistance against the application of new technologies. It proved to be very able to create an attractive concept for Berlin's TELLUS Dissemination Campaign. According to the conditions of each demonstrations measure – a mix from diverse products, sizes of enterprises and involved cultures – P.O.P. could achieve with some of the demonstration measures most of its objectives and with others not. On a general level all objectives could be achieved partly (identify target group of the respective demonstration measure
The policy implications relating to the CIVITAS policy field “Innovative Soft Measures” according to the demonstration site (Berlin, Bucharest, Göteborg, Gdynia, Rotterdam) and measure are as follows.
4) Rotterdam (The Netherlands).
- Green commuter plans and mobility management
The VCC-R is currently mostly kn own for its action about biking and information about bicycle routes, the organisation might have to look for a broadened scope of the website. For example success stories of individual companies working with commuter plans (e.g. examples about, use of public transport) could help to make the scope broader and attract people with various interests.
- New approaches to integrated planning.
The lessons learned from this measure are applicable to many situations. In general two main conditions have been identified to smoothen the process of integrated planning:
a) all levels of policy makers (city districts, municipality, regional authority) and politicians should be committed to the policy plan;
b) pressure form the market or market opportunities should be exploited to enforce the planning process.
Although probably well known and understood, these recommendations are of particular interest for complex measures such as these planning processes. The rationale behind this is that the invested energy in gaining commitment beforehand is only a fraction of the energy that is needed to restore acceptance after an undesired (policy) plan has been established. The pressure of stakeholders from the market can be very useful to gain such political commitment and therewith accelerate the process.